Cognitive rehabilitation in subjects suffering from environmental diseases

Giuseppe Castellani, Luca Mandolesi

Accepted December 31, 2021

First published December 31, 2021

https://doi.org/10.26387/bpa.292.5

Abstract

There is a lack of studies about environmental diseases, such as multiple chemical sensitivity, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and electrosensitivity. The main cognitive consequences of these syndromes are the loss of memory, attention and concentration. The aim of the study is to experimentally verify the impact of cognitive rehabilitation on these aspects in people suffering from these diseases. Two phases of training for memory were administered to an experimental group of 25 subjects suffering from environmental diseases and to a control group made up of 12 healthy people. Subsequently they were administered again in order to evaluate a possible improvement of the neuropsychological functions. The training shows in both groups a general improvement in memory. The improvement is more considerable in people suffering from the diseases, probably because of the lower starting level of the patients. People suffering from environmental diseases can improve their cognitive functions through a rehabilitation training of memory, like the one presented in this study. These functions are essential to let people to have a regular everyday life. There is a need for more studies in order to find the best neuropsychological therapy, to help people suffering of environmental diseases to have a better life.

References

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  • BINKLEY, K., KING, N., POONAI, N., SEEMAN, P., ULPIAN,C. & KENNEDY, J. (2001). Idiopathic environmentalintolerance: Increased prevalence of panic disorder-associatedcholecystokinin B receptor allele 7. Journal of Allergy and ClinicalImmunology,107(5),887-890.

    doi.org/10.1067/mai.2001.114798
  • BRANCO, J.C., BANNWARTH, B., FAILDE, I., ABELLOCARBONELL, J., BLOTMAN, F., SPAETH, M., SARAIVA,F., NACCI, F., THOMAS, E., CAUBÈRE, J.P., LE LAY, K.,TAIEB, C. & MATUCCI-CERINIC, M. (2010). Prevalence offibromyalgia: A survey in five European countries. Seminars inArthritis and Rheumatism, 39 (6), 448-453.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2008.12.003
  • CORE TEAM (2019). R: A language and environment for statisticalcomputing, R foundation for statistical computing. The R Projectfor Statistical Computing. www.R-project.org/

  • CULLEN, M.R. (1987). Workers with multiple chemical sensitivities.Occupational medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.), 2 (4), 655-661.

  • FALK HVIDBERG, M., BRINTH, L.S., OLESEN, A.V., PETERSEN,K.D. & EHLERS, L. (2015). The health-related quality of lifefor patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatiguesyndrome (ME/CFS). PLoS ONE, 10 (7), e0132421.

    doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132421
  • IPCS (1996). Conclusions and recommendations of a workshop onmultiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). Regulatory Toxicologyand Pharmacology, 24 (1), S188-S189.

    doi.org/10.1006/rtph.1996.0095MEGGS, W.J. (1991, Sept. 19-20). Multiple chemical sensitivitiesand the immune system. Workshop on Multiple ChemicalSensitivities, presented by the Association of Occupational andEnvironmental Clinics, Washington DC.
  • ORRIOLS, R., COSTA, R., CUBERAS, G., JACAS, C., CASTELL, J.& SUNYER, J. (2009). Brain dysfunction in multiple chemicalsensitivity. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 287 (1–2), 72-78.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2009.09.003
  • PALL, M.L. (2009). Multiple chemical sensitivity: Toxicologicalquestions and mechanisms. General and Applied Toxicology.

    doi.org/10.1002/9780470744307.gat091
  • RANDOLPH, T.G. (1952). Sensitivity to petroleum including itsderivatives and antecedents. Journal of Laboratory and ClinicalMedicine, 40 (6), 931-932.

  • RUBIN, G.J., DAS MUNSHI, J. & WESSELY, S. (2006). A systematicreview of treatments for electromagnetic hypersensitivity.Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75 (1), 12-18.

    doi.org/10.1159/000089222
  • SALAFFI, F., DE ANGELIS, R., GRASSI, W. et al. (2005). Prevalenceof musculoskeletal conditions in an Italian population sample:Results of a regional community-based study. I. The MAPPINGstudy. Clin Exp Rheumatol, 23, 819-828.

  • STEINEMANN, A. (2018). National prevalence and effects ofmultiple chemical sensitivities. Journal of Occupational &Environmental Medicine, 60 (3), e152-e156.

    doi.org/10.1097/jom.0000000000001272
  • WHITE, K.P., HARTH, M., SPEECHLEY, M. & OSTBYE, T. (1999).Testing an instrument to screen for fibromyalgia syndromein general population studies: The London fibromyalgiaepidemiology study screening questionnaire. J Rheumatol, 26(4), 880-884.

  • WOLFE, F. (2010). New American college of rheumatology criteriafor fibromyalgia: A twenty-year journey. Arthritis Care &Research, 62 (5), 583-584.

    doi.org/10.1002/acr.20156
  • YOUDIM, S., REA, W.J. & LIANG, H. (1991). Treatment ofenvironmentally sensitive patients with transfer factor, Part 1:Immunologic studies. Clin. Ecol., 7 (3), 55-61.

  • BARTHA, L., BAUMZWEIGER, W., BUSCHER, D., CALLENDER,M., DAHL, K. & DAVIDOFF, A. (1999). Multiple chemicalsensitivity: A 1999 consensus. Archives of EnvironmentalHealth: An International Journal, 54 (3), 147-149.

    doi.org/10.1080/00039899909602251
  • BINKLEY, K., KING, N., POONAI, N., SEEMAN, P., ULPIAN,C. & KENNEDY, J. (2001). Idiopathic environmentalintolerance: Increased prevalence of panic disorder-associatedcholecystokinin B receptor allele 7. Journal of Allergy and ClinicalImmunology,107(5),887-890.

    doi.org/10.1067/mai.2001.114798
  • BRANCO, J.C., BANNWARTH, B., FAILDE, I., ABELLOCARBONELL, J., BLOTMAN, F., SPAETH, M., SARAIVA,F., NACCI, F., THOMAS, E., CAUBÈRE, J.P., LE LAY, K.,TAIEB, C. & MATUCCI-CERINIC, M. (2010). Prevalence offibromyalgia: A survey in five European countries. Seminars inArthritis and Rheumatism, 39 (6), 448-453.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2008.12.003
  • CORE TEAM (2019). R: A language and environment for statisticalcomputing, R foundation for statistical computing. The R Projectfor Statistical Computing. www.R-project.org/

  • CULLEN, M.R. (1987). Workers with multiple chemical sensitivities.Occupational medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.), 2 (4), 655-661.

  • FALK HVIDBERG, M., BRINTH, L.S., OLESEN, A.V., PETERSEN,K.D. & EHLERS, L. (2015). The health-related quality of lifefor patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatiguesyndrome (ME/CFS). PLoS ONE, 10 (7), e0132421.

    doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132421
  • IPCS (1996). Conclusions and recommendations of a workshop onmultiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). Regulatory Toxicologyand Pharmacology, 24 (1), S188-S189.

    doi.org/10.1006/rtph.1996.0095MEGGS, W.J. (1991, Sept. 19-20). Multiple chemical sensitivitiesand the immune system. Workshop on Multiple ChemicalSensitivities, presented by the Association of Occupational andEnvironmental Clinics, Washington DC.
  • ORRIOLS, R., COSTA, R., CUBERAS, G., JACAS, C., CASTELL, J.& SUNYER, J. (2009). Brain dysfunction in multiple chemicalsensitivity. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 287 (1–2), 72-78.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2009.09.003
  • PALL, M.L. (2009). Multiple chemical sensitivity: Toxicologicalquestions and mechanisms. General and Applied Toxicology.

    doi.org/10.1002/9780470744307.gat091
  • RANDOLPH, T.G. (1952). Sensitivity to petroleum including itsderivatives and antecedents. Journal of Laboratory and ClinicalMedicine, 40 (6), 931-932.

  • RUBIN, G.J., DAS MUNSHI, J. & WESSELY, S. (2006). A systematicreview of treatments for electromagnetic hypersensitivity.Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75 (1), 12-18.

    doi.org/10.1159/000089222
  • SALAFFI, F., DE ANGELIS, R., GRASSI, W. et al. (2005). Prevalenceof musculoskeletal conditions in an Italian population sample:Results of a regional community-based study. I. The MAPPINGstudy. Clin Exp Rheumatol, 23, 819-828.

  • STEINEMANN, A. (2018). National prevalence and effects ofmultiple chemical sensitivities. Journal of Occupational &Environmental Medicine, 60 (3), e152-e156.

    doi.org/10.1097/jom.0000000000001272
  • WHITE, K.P., HARTH, M., SPEECHLEY, M. & OSTBYE, T. (1999).Testing an instrument to screen for fibromyalgia syndromein general population studies: The London fibromyalgiaepidemiology study screening questionnaire. J Rheumatol, 26(4), 880-884.

  • WOLFE, F. (2010). New American college of rheumatology criteriafor fibromyalgia: A twenty-year journey. Arthritis Care &Research, 62 (5), 583-584.

    doi.org/10.1002/acr.20156
  • YOUDIM, S., REA, W.J. & LIANG, H. (1991). Treatment ofenvironmentally sensitive patients with transfer factor, Part 1:Immunologic studies. Clin. Ecol., 7 (3), 55-61.

  • BARTHA, L., BAUMZWEIGER, W., BUSCHER, D., CALLENDER,M., DAHL, K. & DAVIDOFF, A. (1999). Multiple chemicalsensitivity: A 1999 consensus. Archives of EnvironmentalHealth: An International Journal, 54 (3), 147-149.

    doi.org/10.1080/00039899909602251
  • BINKLEY, K., KING, N., POONAI, N., SEEMAN, P., ULPIAN,C. & KENNEDY, J. (2001). Idiopathic environmentalintolerance: Increased prevalence of panic disorder-associatedcholecystokinin B receptor allele 7. Journal of Allergy and ClinicalImmunology,107(5),887-890.

    doi.org/10.1067/mai.2001.114798
  • BRANCO, J.C., BANNWARTH, B., FAILDE, I., ABELLOCARBONELL, J., BLOTMAN, F., SPAETH, M., SARAIVA,F., NACCI, F., THOMAS, E., CAUBÈRE, J.P., LE LAY, K.,TAIEB, C. & MATUCCI-CERINIC, M. (2010). Prevalence offibromyalgia: A survey in five European countries. Seminars inArthritis and Rheumatism, 39 (6), 448-453.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2008.12.003
  • CORE TEAM (2019). R: A language and environment for statisticalcomputing, R foundation for statistical computing. The R Projectfor Statistical Computing. www.R-project.org/

  • CULLEN, M.R. (1987). Workers with multiple chemical sensitivities.Occupational medicine (Philadelphia, Pa.), 2 (4), 655-661.

  • FALK HVIDBERG, M., BRINTH, L.S., OLESEN, A.V., PETERSEN,K.D. & EHLERS, L. (2015). The health-related quality of lifefor patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatiguesyndrome (ME/CFS). PLoS ONE, 10 (7), e0132421.

    doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132421
  • IPCS (1996). Conclusions and recommendations of a workshop onmultiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). Regulatory Toxicologyand Pharmacology, 24 (1), S188-S189.

    doi.org/10.1006/rtph.1996.0095MEGGS, W.J. (1991, Sept. 19-20). Multiple chemical sensitivitiesand the immune system. Workshop on Multiple ChemicalSensitivities, presented by the Association of Occupational andEnvironmental Clinics, Washington DC.
  • ORRIOLS, R., COSTA, R., CUBERAS, G., JACAS, C., CASTELL, J.& SUNYER, J. (2009). Brain dysfunction in multiple chemicalsensitivity. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 287 (1–2), 72-78.

    doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2009.09.003
  • PALL, M.L. (2009). Multiple chemical sensitivity: Toxicologicalquestions and mechanisms. General and Applied Toxicology.

    doi.org/10.1002/9780470744307.gat091
  • RANDOLPH, T.G. (1952). Sensitivity to petroleum including itsderivatives and antecedents. Journal of Laboratory and ClinicalMedicine, 40 (6), 931-932.

  • RUBIN, G.J., DAS MUNSHI, J. & WESSELY, S. (2006). A systematicreview of treatments for electromagnetic hypersensitivity.Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75 (1), 12-18.

    doi.org/10.1159/000089222
  • SALAFFI, F., DE ANGELIS, R., GRASSI, W. et al. (2005). Prevalenceof musculoskeletal conditions in an Italian population sample:Results of a regional community-based study. I. The MAPPINGstudy. Clin Exp Rheumatol, 23, 819-828.

  • STEINEMANN, A. (2018). National prevalence and effects ofmultiple chemical sensitivities. Journal of Occupational &Environmental Medicine, 60 (3), e152-e156.

    doi.org/10.1097/jom.0000000000001272
  • WHITE, K.P., HARTH, M., SPEECHLEY, M. & OSTBYE, T. (1999).Testing an instrument to screen for fibromyalgia syndromein general population studies: The London fibromyalgiaepidemiology study screening questionnaire. J Rheumatol, 26(4), 880-884.

  • WOLFE, F. (2010). New American college of rheumatology criteriafor fibromyalgia: A twenty-year journey. Arthritis Care &Research, 62 (5), 583-584.

    doi.org/10.1002/acr.20156
  • YOUDIM, S., REA, W.J. & LIANG, H. (1991). Treatment ofenvironmentally sensitive patients with transfer factor, Part 1:Immunologic studies. Clin. Ecol., 7 (3), 55-61.

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Castellani Giuseppe. Mandolesi Luca. Cognitive rehabilitation in subjects suffering from environmental diseases. BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2021;292(1):60-68. doi:10.26387/bpa.292.1.

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Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.


Castellani Giuseppe. Mandolesi Luca. Cognitive rehabilitation in subjects suffering from environmental diseases. BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2021;292(1):60-68. doi:10.26387/bpa.292.1.