Measuring empathy: A literature review of available tools

Guste Ilgunaite, Luciano Giromini, Marzia Di Girolamo

Accepted December 31, 2017

First published December 31, 2017

Abstract

Empathy is described as a complex construct that develops the whole life of a person. It is defined as the capability of a person to understand the other person’s feelings, to be able to feel the same way the other person does and to be capable to take action to resolve the problem of that individual. There are three major categories of empathy, i.e., affective, cognitive and compassionate. All are very important to clinical psychology, interpersonal relationships, and psychological assessment. The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review to describe the most widely used instruments to measure empathy in the range of the last fifteen years. The results showed that there are different approaches to measuring empathy, with the most popular ones being self−reports.

References

  • BALDNER, C. & McGINLEY, J.J. (2014). Correlational andexploratory factor analyses (EFA) of commonly used empathyquestionnaires: New insights. Motivation and Emotion, 38 (5),727−744.

  • BARON−COHEN, S., WHELLWRIGHT, S., HILL, J., RASTE, Y.& PLUMB, I. (2001). The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes Testrevised version: A study with normal adults, and adults withAsperger Syndrom or High−functioning Autism. Journal of ChildPsychology, 42 (2), 241−251.

  • BATSON, C.D., AHMAD, N. & STOCKS, E.L. (2004). Benefits andliabilities of empathyinduced altruism. In A.G. Miller (Ed.), Thesocial psychology of good and evil. New york: Guilford Press.

  • CORNELL, A.H. & FRICK, P.J. (2007). The moderating effects ofparenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibitionand parent−reported guilt and empathy in preschool children.Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 305−318.

  • DAVIS, M.H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy:Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personalityand Social Psychology, 44 (1), 113−126.

  • DAVIS,M.H.&OATHOUT,H.A.(1987).Maintenanceofsatisfactionin romantic relationship: Empathy and relational competence.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 397−410.

  • DECETY, J. & LAMM, C. (2006). Human empathy through the lensof social neuroscience. Scientific World Journal, 6, 1146−1163.

  • DEMIDOVA, K.Y., DUBOVIK, V.V., KRAVCHENKO, V.I. &MAKARCHOUK, N.E. (2014). EEG Activity during Viewing ofNeutral and Emotionally Colored Pictures by Men and Womenwith Different Levels of Empathy. Neurophysiology, 46 (2).

  • DERNTL, B., FINKELMEYER, A., TOYGAR, T.K., HULSMANN,A., SCHNEIDER, F., FALKENBERG, D.I. & HABEL, U. (2009).Generalized deficit in all core components of empathy inschizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 108 (1−3), 197−206.

  • DE WAAL, F.B.M. (2009). Putting altruism back into altruism: Theevolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 279−300.

  • DODICH, A., CERAMI, C., CANESSA, N., CRESPI, C.,IANNACCONE,S.,MARCONE,A.,REALMUTO,S.,LETTIERI,G., PERANI, D. & CAPPA, S.F. (2015). A novel task assessingintention and emotion attribution: Italian standardization andnormative data of the Story−based Empathy Task. NeurologicalScience, 36, 1907−1912.

  • DZIOBEK, I. & HEEKEREN, H.R. (2008). Dissociation of cognitiveand emotional empathy in adults with Asperger syndrome usingthe Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). Journal of Autism andDevelopmental Disorders, 38 (3), 464−473.

  • EKMAN,P.&FRIESEN,W.V.(1975).UnmaskingtheFace.EnglewoodCliffs, New Jersey: Spectrum−Prentice Hall.

  • GOLEMAN, D. (2007). Three kinds of empathy: Cognitive, Emotional,Compassionate. http://www.danielgoleman.info/three−kinds−of−empathy−cognitive−emotional−compassionate/

  • GRUHN, D., REBUCAL, K., DIEHL, M., LUMLEY, M. &LABOUVIE−VIEF, G. (2008). Empathy across the adult lifespan:Longitudinal and experience−sampling fndings. Emotion, 8,753−765.

  • HOJAT, M., GONNELLA, J.S., MANGIONE, S., NASCA, T.J.,VELOSKI, J.J., ERDMANN, B., CALLAHAN, C.A. & MAGEE,M. (2002). Empathy in medical students as related to academicperformance, clinical competence and gender. MedicalEducation, 36, 522−527.

  • HOJAT, M., MANGIONE, S., GREGORY, C., KANE, G.C. &GONNELLA, J.S., (2005). Relationships between scores of theJeffersonScaleofPhysicianEmpathy(JSPE)andtheInterpersonalReactivity Index (IRI). Medical Teacher, 27, 625−628.

  • HOJAT, M. & LaNOUE, M. (2014). Exploration and confirmationof the latent variable structure of the Jefferson scale of empathy.International Journal of Medical Education, 5, 73−81.

  • JUNTUNEN, A. & SAARTI, J. (2000). Library as the Student‘sCornerstone or Obstacle: Evaluating the Method of Empathy−Based Stories. Libri, 50, 235−240.

  • KANE, G.C., GOTTO, J.L., MANGIONE, S., WEST, S. & HOJAT,M. (2007). Jefferson Scale of Patient’s Perceptions of PhysicianEmpathy: Preliminary Psychometric Data. Croat Med J., 48,81−86.

  • KENNY, D.A., MOHR, C.D. & LEVESQUE, M.J. (2001). A Socialrelations variance partitioning of dyadic behavior. PsychologicalBulletin, 127 (1), 128−141.

  • KIM, Y.T., LEE, J.J., SONG, H.J., KIM, J.H., KWON, D.H., KIM, M.N.,YOO, D.S., LEE, H.J. & CHANG, Y. (2010). Alterations in corticalactivity of male methamphetamine abusers performing empathytask: fMRI study. Human Psychopharmacology, 25, 63−70.

  • LAWRENCE, E.J., SHAW, P., BAKER, D., BARON−COHEN, S. &DAVID, A.S. (2004). Measuring empathy: Reliability and validityof the empathy quotient. Psychological Medicine: A Journal ofResearch in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 34 (5), 911−919.

  • LEONG, L.E.M., CANO, A., WURM, L.H., LUMLEY, M.A. &CORLEY, A.M. (2015). A perspective−taking manipulation leadsto greater empathy and less pain during the cold pressor task. TheJournal of Pain, 16 (11), 1176−1185.

  • LYONS, C. & HAZLER, R.J. (2002). The influence of studentdevelopment level on improving counselor student empathy.Counselor education and supervision, 42.

  • MARTIN, G.B. & CLARK, R.D. (1982). Distress crying in neonates:Species and peer specificity. Developmental Psychology, 18, 3−9.

  • MEHRABIAN, A. & EPSTEIN, N. (1972). A measure of emotionalempathy. Journal of Personality, 40 (4), 525−543.

  • MICHAELS, T.M., HORAN, W.P., GINGERA, E.J.,MARTINOVICHA, Z., PINKHAMD, A.E. & SMITH, M.J.(2014). Cognitive empathy contributes to poor social functioningin schizophrenia: Evidence from a new self−report measure ofcognitive and affective empathy. Psychiatry Research, 220 (3),803−810.

  • MONTANARI, P., PETRUCCI, C., RUSSO, S., MURRAY, I.,DIMONTE, V. & LANCIA, L. (2015). Psychometric propertiesof Jefferson Scale of Empathy−Health Professional Student‘sversion: An Italian validation study with nursing students.Nursing and health sciences, 17, 483−491.

  • O‘BRIEN, E., KONRATH, S.H., GRUHN, D. & HAGEN, A.L.(2012). Empathic concern and perspective taking: Linear andquadratic effects of age across the adult life span. The Journals ofGerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences.

    doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbs055.
  • RENIERS, R., CORCORAN, R., DRAKE, J., SHRYANE, N. &VOLLM, B. (2011). The QCAE: A questionnaire of cognitiveand affective empathy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93 (1),84−95.

  • ROGERS, K., DZIOBEK, I., HASSENSTAB, J., WOLF, O.T. &CONVIT, A. (2007). Who cares? Revisiting empathy in Aspergersyndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(4), 709−715.

  • SONNBY−BORGSTROM, M., JONSSON, P. & SVENSSON, O.(2003). Emotional empathy as related to mimicry reactions atdifferent levels of information processing. Journal of NonverbalBehavior, 27 (1), 3−23.

  • TOMKINS, S. (1991). Affect, imagery and consciousness. New York:Springer Publishing Company.

  • WELLMAN, H.M., CROSS, D. & WATSON, J. (2001). Meta−analysisof theory−of−mind development: The truth about false belief.Child Development, 72, 655−684.

  • WIRTZ, M., BOECKERB, M., FORKMANN, T. & NEUMANN,M., (2011). Methodology in health communication researchevaluationofthe“ConsultationandRelationalEmpathy”(CARE)measure by means of Rasch−analysis at the example of cancerpatients. Patient Education and Counseling, 82 (3), 298−306.

  • YANG, K.T. & YANG, J.H. (2013). A study of the effect of a visualarts−based program on the scores of Jefferson scale for physicianempathy. BMC Medical Education, 13, 142.

  • ZAHN−WAXLER, C., ROBINSON, J.L. & EMDE, R.N. (1992). Thedevelopment of empathy in twins. Developmental Psychology, 28,1038−1047.

  • AUSTIN, E.J., EVANS, P., MAGNUS, B. & O’HANLON, K. (2007).A preliminary study of empathy, emotional intelligence andexamination performance in MBChB students. MedicalEducation.

  • ABRAMOWITZ, A.C., GINGER, E.J., GOLLAN, J.K. & SMITH, M.J.(2014). Empathy, depressive symptoms, and social functioningamong individuals with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research.

  • ACHIM, A.M., OUELLET, R., ROY, M.A. & JACKSON, P.L. (2011).Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.Psychiatry Research.

  • ADRIAANSEN, M., VAN ACHTERBERG, T. & BORM, G. (2008).The usefulness of the staff-patient interaction response scale forpalliative care nursing for measuring the empathetic capacity ofnursing students. Journal of Professional Nursing.

  • AINLEY, V., MAISTER, L. & TSAKIRIS, M. (2015). Heartfeltempathy? No association between interoceptive awareness,questionnaire measures of empathy, reading the mind in the eyestask or the director task. Frontiers in Psychology.

  • ARONSON, L. (2014). Examining empathy. The Lancet.

  • AUSTIN, E.J., EVANS, P., MAGNUS, B. & O’HANLON, K. (2007).A preliminary study of empathy, emotional intelligence andexamination performance in MBChB students. MedicalEducation.

  • BAILEY, P.E., HENRY, J.D. & VON HIPPEL, W. (2008). Empathy andsocial functioning in late adulthood. Aging & Mental Health.

  • BALCONI, M. & BORTOLOTTI, A. (2012). Detection of the facialexpression of emotion and self-report measures in empathicsituations are influenced by sensorimotor circuit inhibition bylow-frequency rTMS. Brain stimulus.

  • BALCONI, M. & BORTOLOTTI, A. (2012). Empathy in cooperativeversusnon-cooperativesituations:Thecontributionofself-reportmeasures and autonomic responses. Applied Psychophysiologyand Biofeedback.

  • BALCONI, M. & BORTOLOTTI, A. (2014). Self-report, personalityand autonomic system modulation in response to empathicconflictual versus non conflictual situation. Cognitive Emotions.

  • BALCONI, M. & BORTOLOTTI, A. (2014). Self-report measures,facialfeedback, and personality differences(BEES) incooperativevs. noncooperative situations: Contribution of the mimic systemto the sense of empathy. Cognitive Emotions.

  • BALCONI, M. & CANAVESIO, Y. (2013). Emotional contagionand trait empathy in prosocial behavior in young people: Thecontribution of autonomic (facial feedback) and balancedemotional empathy scale (BEES) measures. Journal of ClinicalNeuropsychology.

  • BALCONI, M. & CANAVESIO, Y. (2013). High-frequency rTMSimproves facial mimicry and detection responses in an empathicemotional task. Neuroscience.

  • BALTES F.R. & MIU, A.C. (2014). Emotions during live musicperformance: Links with individual differences in empathy,visual imagery, and mood. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind andBrain.

  • BARON-COHEN, S. & WHEELWRIGHT, S. (2004). The empathyquotient: An investigation of adults with asperger syndrome orhigh functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal ofAutism and Developmental Disorders.

  • BASS, E.C., STEDNITZ, S.J., SIMONSON, K., SHEN, T. & GAHTAN,E. (2014). Physiological stress reactivity and empathy followingsocial exclusion: A test of the defensive emotional analgesiahypothesis. Social Neuroscience.

  • BERG, K., BLATT, B., LOPREIATO, J., JUNG, J., SCHAEFFER,A., HEIL, D., OWENS, T., CARTER-NOLAN, P.L., BERG, D.,VELOSKI, J., DARBY, E. & HOJAT, M. (2015). Standardizedpatient assessment of medical student empathy: Ethnicityand gender effects in a multi-institutional study. Academicalmedicine.

  • ́BERTHOZ,S.,WESSA,M.,GAYANNEE,K.,WICKER,B.&GRÈZES,J. (2008). Cross-cultural validation of the empathy quotient in afrench-speaking sample. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.

  • BIKKER, A.P., FITZPATRICK, B., MURPHY, D. & MERCER, S.W.(2015). Measuring empathic, person-centred communication inprimary care nurses: Validity and reliability of the Consultationand Relational Empathy (CARE) Measure. BMC Fam Pract.

  • BIKKER, A.P., MERCER, S.W. & COTTON, P. (2012). Connecting,Assessing, Responding and Empowering (CARE): A universalapproach to person-centred, empathic healthcare encounters.Educ Prim Care.

  • BILLIMEK,J.,GUZMAN,H.&ANGULO,M.A.(2015).Effectivenessand feasibility of a software tool to help patients communicatewith doctors about problems they face with their medicationregimen (EMPATHy): Study protocol for a randomizedcontrolled trial. Trials.

  • BYLUND, C.L. & MAKOUL, G. (2005). Examining empathy inmedical encounters: An observational study using the empathiccommunication coding system. Health Commun.

  • BOUDJEMAD, V. & GANA, K. (2009). Ageism: Adaptation of theFraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised to the French language andtesting the effects of empathy, social dominance orientation anddogmatism on ageism. Can J Aging.

  • BRAUN, S., ROSSEEL, Y., KEMPENAERS, C., LOAS, G. &LINKOWSKI, P. (2015). Self-report of empathy: A shortenedfrench adaptation of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)using two large Belgian samples. Psychol Rep.

  • BROOK, M. & KOSSON, D. (2013). Impaired cognitive empathy incriminal psychopathy: Evidence from a laboratory measure ofempathic accuracy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

  • BUSBY, D. & GARDNER, C. (2008). How do I analyze thee? Let mecount the ways: Considering empathy in couple relationshipsusing self and partner ratings. Family Process.

  • CACI,H.,NADALET,L.,BAYLÉ,F.J.,ROBERT,P.&BOYER,P.(2003).Cross-cultural study of the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (IVE-7). Comprehensive PsychiatryEmpathy theory and practice: A survey of psychologists andcounselors.

  • CARLOZZI, A., LAWRENCE, B., RAY, K. & BARNES, L. (2002).Empathy theory and practice: A survey of psychologists andcounselors. The Journal of Psychology.

  • CARRÉ, A. (2013). The Basic Empathy Scale in Adults (BES-A):Factor structure of a revised form. Psychological Assessment.

  • CHEN, D.C., PAHILAN, M.E. & ORLANDER, J.D. (2010).Comparing a self-administered measure of empathy withobserved behavior among medical students. J Gen Intern Med.

  • CHRYSIKOU, E.G. & THOMPSON, W.J. (2015). Assessing medicalstudent empathy in a family medicine clinical test: Validity of theCARE measure. Assessment.

  • CHRYSIKOU, E.G. & THOMPSON, W.J. (2016). Assessing Cognitiveand Affective Empathy Through the Interpersonal ReactivityIndex: An Argument Against a Two-Factor Model. Assessment.

  • CHU, C.I. & TSENG, C.C. (2013). A survey of how patient-perceivedempathy affects the relationship between health literacy and theunderstanding of information by orthopedic patients? BMCPublic Health.

  • CICCHETTI, D. & MISAKI, N. (2014). Empathy as a “risky strength”:A multilevel examination of empathy and risk for internalizingdisorders. Development and Psychopathology.

  • CLIFFORDSON, C. (2002). The hierarchical structure of empathy:dimensional organization and relations to social functioning.Scand J Psychol.

  • COLLINS, K., GRATTON, C., HENEAGE, C. & DAGNAN,D. (2015). Employed carers’ empathy towards people withintellectual disabilities: The development of a new measure andsome initial theory. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil.

  • CORRADINI, A. & ANTONIETTI, A. (2013). Mirror neurons andtheir function in cognitively understood empathy. ConsciousCogn.

  • CONRAD, B. & MCGINLEY, J. (2014). Correlational andExploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) of commonly used empathyquestionnaires: New insights. Motivation and Emotion.

  • CRANDALL, S.J. & MARION, G.S. (2009). Commentary:Identifying attitudes towards empathy. An essential feature ofprofessionalism. Acad Med.

  • CROMIE, T.R. (2015). Jane Addams and the “devil baby tales”: Theusefulness of perplexity in “sympathetic understanding,” a tool inlearning empathy. J Am Psychoanal Assoc.

  • CURWEN, T. (2003). The importance of offense characteristics,victimization history, hostility, and social desirability in assessingempathy of male adolescent sex offenders. Sex Abuse.

  • CUSI, A., MacQUEEN, G.M., McKINNON, M.C. (2010). Alteredself-report of empathic responding in patients with bipolardisorder. Psychiatry Res.

  • DAVIDSON, J.H. (2014). Empathy and integrative thinking:Talmudic paradigms for the essentials of a medical interview.Med Humanit.

  • de BARROS, D.M., DIAS, A.M., SERAFIM, A.P., CASTELLANA,G.B., ACHÁ, M.F. & BUSATTO, G.F. (2013). Dimensionalassessment of psychopathy and its relationship withphysiological responses to empathic images in juvenileoffenders. Front Psychiatry.

  • DECKER, S.E., NICH, C., CARROLL, K.M. & MARTINO, S. (2014).Development of the Therapist Empathy Scale. Behavioural andCognitive Psychotherapy.

  • DEMIDOVA, K.Y., DUBOVIK, V., KRAVCHENKO, I. &MAKARCHOUK, N. (2014). EEG activity during viewing ofneutral and emotionally colored pictures by men and womenwith different levels of empathy. Neurophysiology.

  • DENCKLA, C.A., FIORI, K.L. & VINGERHOETS, A.J. (2014).Development of the Crying Proneness Scale: Associations amongcrying proneness, empathy, attachment, and age. J Pers Assess.

  • DERNTL, B., FINKELMEYER, A., EICKHOFF, S., KELLERMANN,T., FALKENBERG, D.I., SCHNEIDER, F. & HABEL, U. (2010).Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: Neuralcorrelates and gender differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology.

  • DEVLIN, H.C., ZAKI, J., ONG, D.C. & GRUBER, J. (2014). Notas good as you think? Trait positive emotion is associatedwith increased self-reported empathy but decreased empathicperformance. PLoS One.

  • DI GIUNTA, L. & KUPFER, A. (2010). Assessing perceived empathicand social self-efficacy across countries. European Journal ofPsychological Assessment.

  • DI LILLO, M., CICCHETTI, A., LO SCALZO, A., TARONI, F. &HOJAT, M. (2009). The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy:Preliminary psychometrics and group comparisons in Italianphysicians. Acad Med.

  • DI ROSA, E., SORARÙ, G., KLEINBUB, J.R., CALVO, V., VALLESI,A., QUERIN, G., MARCATO, S., GRASSO, I. & PALMIERI,A. (2015). Theory of mind, empathy and neuropsychologicalfunctioning in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: Acontrolled study of 20 patients. J Neurol.

  • DODICH, A., CERAMI, C., CANESSA, N., CRESPI, C.,IANNACCONE,S.,MARCONE,A.,REALMUTO,S.,LETTIERI,G., PERANI, D. & CAPPA, S.F. (2015). A novel task assessingintention and emotion attribution: Italian standardization andnormative data of the Story-based Empathy Task. Neurol Sci.

  • DUAN, C. & KIVLIGHAN, D.M. (2002). Relationships amongtherapist presession mood, therapist empathy, and sessionevaluation. Psychother Res.

  • DZIOBEK, I., ROGERS, K., FLECK, S., BAHNEMANN, M.,HEEKEREN, H., WOLF, O. & CONVIT, A. (2008). Dissociationof cognitive and emotional empathy in adults with Aspergersyndrome using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). Journalof Autism and Developmental Disorders.

  • EASTER, D.W. & BEACH, W. (2004). Competent patient care isdependent upon attending to empathic opportunities presentedduring interview sessions. Curr Surg.

  • EIDE, H., FRANKEL, R., HAAVERSEN, A.C., VAUPEL, K.A.,GRAUGAARD, P.K. & FINSET, A. (2004). Listening for feelings:Identifying and coding empathic and potential empathicopportunities in medical dialogues. Patient Educ Couns.

  • EIDE, H., SIBBERN, T. & JOHANNESSEN, T. (2011). Empathicaccuracy of nurses’ immediate responses to fibromyalgia patients’expressions of negative emotions: an evaluation using interactionanalysis. J Adv Nurs.

  • ESLINGER,P.J.,MOORE,P.,ANDERSON,C.&MURRAY,G.(2011).Social cognition, executive functioning, and neuroimagingcorrelates of empathic deficits in frontotemporal dementia. TheJournal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.

  • EVERSON, N., LEVETT-JONES, T., LAPKIN, S., PITT, V., vander RIET, P., ROSSITER, R., JONES, D., GILLIGAN, C.,COURTNEY-PRATT, H. (2015). Measuring the impact of a 3Dsimulation experience on nursing students’ cultural empathyusing a modified version of the Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale.J Clin Nurs.

  • FERNÁNDEZ,A.&SANTIAGO,A.(2011).Testingthepsychometricproperties of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) in Chile:Empathy in a different cultural context. European Journal ofPsychological Assessment.

  • FERRARI, P.F. (2014). The neuroscience of social relations. Acomparative-based approach to empathy and to the capacity ofevaluating others’ action value. Behaviour.

  • FIELDS,S.K.,HOJAT,M.,GONNELLA,J.S.,MANGIONE,S.,KANE,G. & MAGEE, M. (2004). Comparisons of nurses and physicianson an operational measure of empathy. Eval Health Prof.

  • FIELDS, S.K., MAHAN, P., TILLMAN, P., HARRIS, J., MAXWELL,K. & HOJAT, M. (2011). Measuring empathy in healthcareprofession students using the Jefferson Scale of PhysicianEmpathy: Health provider-student version. J Interprof Care.

  • FINN, S.E. (2009). The many faces of empathy in experiential,person-centered, collaborative assessment. Journal of PersonalAssessment.

  • FJORTOFT, N., VAN WINKLE, L.J. & HOJAT, M. (2011). Measuringempathy in pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ.

  • FORD, R.M. & ABERDEIN, B. (2015). Exploring social influences onthe joint Simon task: Empathy and friendship. Front Psychol.

  • FREEDBERG, S. (2007). Re-examining empathy: A relational-feminist point of view. Social Work.

  • FROMAN, R.D. & PELOQUIN, S.M. (2001). Rethinking the use ofthe Hogan Empathy Scale: A critical psychometric analysis. AmJ Occup Ther.

  • GARCÍA-MORILLO, S., BERNABEU-WITTEL, M., CASSANI, M.,RINCÓN, M., YERRO PÁEZ, V. & OLLERO BATURONE, M.(2007). Influence of biopsychosocial assessment on degree ofdoctor-patient empathy in a cohort of patients with multiplediseases. Rev Clin Esp.

  • GERDES, K.E., LIETZ, C.A. & SEGAL, E.A. (2011). Measuringempathy in the 21st century: Development of an empathy indexrooted in social cognitive neuroscience and social justice. SocialWork Research.

  • GILET, A.L., STUDER, J., MELLA, N., GRÜHN, D. & LABOUVIE-VIEF, G. (2013). Assessing dispositional empathy in adults: AFrench validation of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI).Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science.

  • GIUMMARRA, M.J., FITZGIBBON, B.M., GEORGIOU-KARISTIANIS, N., BEUKELMAN, M., VERDEJO-GARCIA, A.,BLUMBERG, Z., CHOU, M. & GIBSON, S.J. (2015). Affective,sensory and empathic sharing of another’s pain: The Empathy forPain Scale. Eur J Pain.

  • GLASER, K.M., MARKHAM, F.W., ADLER, H.M., McMANUS,P.R. & HOJAT, M. (2007). Relationships between scores on theJefferson Scale of physician empathy, patient perceptions ofphysician empathy, and humanistic approaches to patient care: Avalidity study. Med Sci Monit.

  • GLEICHGERRCHT, E., TORRALVA, T., RATTAZZI, A.,MARENCO, V., ROCA, M. & MANES, F. (2013). Selectiveimpairment of cognitive empathy for moral judgment in adultswith high functioning autism. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci.

  • GOLAN, O. & BARON-COHEN, S. (2006). Systemizing empathy:Teaching adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioningautism to recognize complex emotions using interactivemultimedia. Development and Psychopathology.

  • GORDON-GILES, N. & WAFA, Z. (2009). Assessing the beyondwords educational model for empowering women, decreasingprejudice and enhancing empathy. American Journal of DanceTherapy.

  • GOSSELIN, É., PAUL-SAVOIE, É., LAVOIE, S. & BOURGAULT,P. (2015). Validity of the French version of the ReynoldsEmpathy Scale among Intensive Care Nurses. Journal of NursingMeasurement.

  • GOUVEIA, V.V., MILFONT, T.L., GOUVEIA, R.S.V., NETO, J.R. &GALVÃO, L. (2012). Brazilian-Portuguese empathy quotient:Evidences of its construct validity and reliability. The SpanishJournal of Psychology.

  • GRADY, M.D. & ROSE, R.A. (2011). The Empathy Index: Anevaluation of the psychometric properties of a new empathymeasure for sex offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

  • GRYNBERG, D. & MAURAGE, P. (2014). Pain and empathy: Theeffect of self-oriented feelings on the detection of painful facialexpressions. PLoS One.

  • GROEN, Y., FUERMAIER, A.B., DEN HEIJER, A.E., TUCHA, O. &ALTHAUS, M. (2015). The empathy and systemizing quotient:The psychometric properties of the Dutch version and a reviewof the cross-cultural stability. J Autism Dev Disord.

  • GROVE, R., BAILLIE, A., ALLISON, C., BARON-COHEN, S. &HOEKSTRA, R.A. (2014). The latent structure of cognitive andemotional empathy in individuals with autism, first-degreerelatives and typical individuals. Mol Autism.

  • GU, J., LAU, J.T., WANG, Z., WU, A.M., TAN, X. (2015). Perceivedempathy of service providers mediates the association betweenperceived discrimination and behavioral intention to take upHIV antibody testing again among men who have sex with men.

  • PLoS One.HAGENMULLER, F., RÖSSLER, W., WITTWER, A. & HAKER, H.(2014). Juicy lemons for measuring basic empathic resonance.Psychiatry Res.

  • HALL, A.E. & BRACKEN, C.C. (2011). I really liked that movie”:Testing the relationship between trait empathy, transportation,perceived realism, and movie enjoyment. Journal of MediaPsychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications.

  • HANDFORD,C.,LEMON,J.,GRIMM,M.C.&VOLLMER-CONNA,U. (2013). Empathy as a function of clinical exposure–readingemotion in the eyes. PLoS One.

  • HANŽEVCAKI, M., JAKOVINA, T., BAJIC, Ž., TOMAC, A. &MERCER, S. (2015). Reliability and validity of the Croatianversion of Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE)Measure in primary care setting. Croat Med J.

  • HASAN, S., AL-SHARQAWI, N., DASHTI, F., ABDULAZIZ,M., ABDULLAH, A., SHUKKUR, M., BOUHAIMED, M. &THALIB, L. (2013). Level of empathy among medical students inKuwait University, Kuwait. Med Princ Pract

  • HEIDENREICH, K.S. (2001). Empathy in the physician-patientrelation-tool or ethics? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen.

  • HENGARTNER, M.P., AJDACIC-GROSS, V., RODGERS, S.,MÜLLER, M., HAKER, H. & RÖSSLER, W. (2014). Fluidintelligence and empathy in association with personality disordertrait-scores: Exploring the link. European Archives of Psychiatryand Clinical Neuroscience.

  • HENNESSY, M., WALTER, J.S. & VESS, J. (2002). An evaluation ofthe Empat as a measure of victim empathy with civilly committedsexual offenders. Sex Abuse.

  • HENRY, J.D., BAILEY, P.E. & RENDELL, P.G. (2008). Empathy, socialfunctioning and schizotypy. Psychiatry Res.

  • HOJAT, M., GONNELLA, J.S., MANGIONE, S., NASCA, T.J.,VELOSKI, J.J., ERDMANN, J.B., CALLAHAN, C.A. & MAGEE,ˇ ́M. (2002). Empathy in medical students as related to academicperformance, clinical competence and gender. Med Educ.

  • HOJAT, M., GONNELLA, J.S., NASCA, T.J., MANGIONE, S.,VELOKSI, J.J. & MAGEE, M. (2002). The Jefferson Scale ofPhysician Empathy: Further psychometric data and differencesby gender and specialty at item level. Acad Med.

  • HOJAT, M. & GONNELLA, J.S. (2015). Eleven years of data on theJefferson Scale of Empathy-Medical Student version (JSE-S):Proxy norm data and tentative cutoff scores. Med Princ Pract.

  • HOJAT, M. & LANOUE, M. (2014). Exploration and confirmationof the latent variable structure of the Jefferson scale of empathy.Int J Med Educ.

  • HOJAT, M., MANGIONE, S., KANE, G.C. & GONNELLA, J.S.(2005). Relationships between scores of the Jefferson Scale ofPhysician Empathy (JSPE) and the Interpersonal ReactivityIndex (IRI). Med Teach.

  • HOJAT, M., MICHALEC, B., VELOSKI, J.J. & TYKOCINSKI, M.L.(2015). Can empathy, other personality attributes, and level ofpositive social influence in medical school identify potentialleaders in medicine? Acad Med.

  • HOJAT, M., MANGIONE, S., NASCA, T.J., GONNELLA, J.S. &MAGEE, M. (2005). Empathy scores in medical school andratings of empathic behavior in residency training 3 years later.The Journal of Social Psychology.

  • HOWLAND, M. & RAFAELI, E. (2010). Bringing everyday mindreading into everyday life: Assessing empathic accuracy withdaily diary data. Journal of Personality.

  • HSIAO, C.Y., TSAI, Y.F. & KAO, Y.C. (2013). Psychometric propertiesof a Chinese version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-HealthProfession Students. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs.

  • IACONO, V., ELLENBOGEN, M.A., WILSON, A.L., DESORMEAU,P. & NIJJAR, R. (2015). Inhibition of personally-relevantangry faces moderates the effect of empathy on interpersonalfunctioning. PLoS One.

  • IMRAN, N., AFTAB, A.M., HAIDER, I. & FARHAT, A. (2013).Educating tomorrow’s doctors: A cross sectional survey ofemotional intelligence and empathy in medical students ofLahore. Pak J Med Sci.

  • JAMIESON, M., KRUPA, T., O’RIORDAN, A., O’CONNOR, D. et al.(2006). Developing empathy as a foundation of client-centredpractice: Evaluation of a university curriculum initiative. TheCanadian Journal of Occupational Therapy.

  • JANG, S.S., SEO, J.H., CHO, G.J., HONG, S.C. & WOO, H.O. (2010).Correlation of communication skills for emotional empathy andacademic achievement on clinical performance examinations.Korean J Med Educ.

  • JANISSE, T. (2006). Empathy: In a moment, a powerful therapeutictool. Perm J.

  • JEON, S. & CHO, E. (2015). Assessment of Korean pharmacystudents’ empathy using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy. Am JPharm Educ.

  • JEUNG, H. & HERPERTZ, S.C. (2014). Impairments of interpersonalfunctioning: Empathy and intimacy in borderline personalitydisorder. Psychopathology.

  • JOHNSTONE, B., COHEN, D., KIRK, K.B., GLASS, B. & SHAWN,E.C. (2015). Functional and structural indices of empathy:Evidence for self-orientation as a neuropsychological foundationof empathy. Neuropsychology.

  • JUNTUNEN, A. & JARMO, S., (2000). Library as the student’sCornerstone or obstacle: Evaluating the method of empathy-based stories. Libri.

  • KANE, G.C., GOTTO, J.L., MANGIONE, S., WEST, S. & HOJAT,M. (2007). Jefferson scale of patient’s perceptions of physicianempathy: Preliminary psychometric data. Croat Med J.

  • KARAFANTIS, D.M. (2011). The effects of ethnocultural empathyon level of stereotyping toward college athletes. J Evid Based SocWork.

  • KATAOKA, H.U., KOIDE, N., OCHI, K., HOJAT, M. & GONNELLA,J.S. (2009). Measurement of empathy among Japanese medicalstudents: Psychometrics and score differences by gender andlevel of medical education. Acad Med.

  • KERR, J.L., STAHNKE, A.M. & BEHNEN, E.M. (2015). Assessingempathy and self-efficacy levels of pharmacy students in anelective diabetes management course. Am J Pharm Educ.

  • KERSTEN, P., WHITE, P.J. & TENNANT, A. (2012). The consultationand relational empathy measure: An investigation of its scalingstructure. Disabil Rehabil.

  • KHADEMALHOSSEINI, M., KHADEMALHOSSEINI, Z. &MAHMOODIAN, F. (2014). Comparison of empathy scoreamong medical students in both basic and clinical levels. J AdvMed Educ Prof.

  • KIERSMA, M.E., CHEN, A.M., YEHLE, K.S. & PLAKE, K.S. (2013).Validationofanempathyscaleinpharmacyandnursingstudents.Am J Pharm Educ.

  • KILIÇ, S.Ç., DOGAN, E., SEVIMLIGÜL, G., YÜCEL, B., BOLAT, F.,KAVAKÇI, O. & SENCAN, M. (2013). Assessing anxiety levelsand empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors. TransfusApher Sci.

  • KILPATRICK,K.L.&ARMIDALE,K.L.(2005).Theparentalempathymeasure: A new approach to assessing child maltreatment risk.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

  • KIM, Y.T., LEE, J.J., SONG, H.J., KIM, J.H., KWON, D.H., KIM,ˇM.N., YOO, D.S., LEE, H.J., KIM, H.J. & CHANG, Y. (2010).Alterations in cortical activity of male methamphetamine abusersperforming an empathy task: fMRI study. Hum Psychopharmacol.

  • KIM, J. & LEE, S.J. (2010). Reliability and validity of the koreanversion of the empathy quotient scale. Psychiatry Investig.

  • KLEIH, S.C. & KÜBLER, A. (2013). Empathy, motivation, and P300BCI performance. Front Hum Neurosci.

  • KOLLER, I. & LAMM, C. (2015). Item response model investigationof the (German) Interpersonal Reactivity Index empathyquestionnaire: Implications for analyses of group differences.European Journal of Psychological Assessment.

  • KONSTANTAKOPOULOS, G., OULIS, P., PLOUMPIDIS, D.,PATRIKELIS, P., NIKITOPOULOU, S., PAPADIMITRIOU,G.N. & DAVID, A.S. (2014). Self-rated and performance-basedempathy in schizophrenia: The impact of cognitive deficits. SocNeurosci.

  • KOSONOGOV, V. (2014). The psychometric properties of theRussian version of the Empathy Quotient. Psychology in Russia.

  • KOZENÝ, J., TISANSKÁ, L. & HÖSCHL, C. (2013). Assessingempathy among czech medical students: A cross-sectional study.Ceskoslovenska Psychologie.

  • LAMBERTON, C.M., LEANA, C.R. & WILLIAMS, J.M. (2015).Measuring empathetic care: Development and validation of aself-report scale. J Appl Gerontol.

  • LAMM, C., NUSBAUM, H.C., MELTZOFF, A.N. & DECETY,J. (2007). What are you feeling? Using functional magneticresonance imaging to assess the modulation of sensory andaffective responses during empathy for pain. PLoS One.

  • LASES, S.S., ARAH, O.A., PIERIK, E.G., HEINEMAN, E. &LOMBARTS, M.J. (2014). Residents’ engagement andempathy associated with their perception of faculty’s teachingperformance. World J Surg.

  • LATIMER, M., JACKSON, P., JOHNSTON, C. & VINE, J. (2011).Examining nurse empathy for infant procedural pain: Testing anew video measure. Pain Research & Management: The Journal ofthe Canadian Pain Society.

  • LAWRENCE, E.J., SHAW, P., BAKER, D., BARON-COHEN, S. &DAVID, A.S. (2004). Measuring empathy: Reliability and validityof the empathy quotient. Psychological Medicine.

  • LEE, S.J., KANG DO, H., KIM, C.W., GU, B.M., PARK, J.Y., CHOI,C.H., SHIN, N.Y., LEE, J.M. & KWON, J.S. (2010). Multi-levelcomparison of empathy in schizophrenia: An fMRI study of acartoon task. Psychiatry Res.

  • LEIBERG, S. & ANDERS, S. (2006). The multiple facets of empathy:A survey of theory and evidence. Prog Brain Res.

  • LENOFF, L. (2003). Consequences of “Empathy”: Rereading Kohut’s

  • (1959) “Examination of the Relationship Between Mode ofObservation and Theory”. Progress in Self Psychology.

  • LEOMBRUNI, P., DI LILLO, M., MINIOTTI, M., PICARDI, A.,ALESSANDRI, G., SICA, C., ZIZZI, F., CASTELLI, L. & TORTA,R. (2014). Measurement properties and confirmatory factoranalysis of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy in Italian medicalstudents. Perspect Med Educ.

  • LEONG, L.E., CANO, A., WURM, L.H., LUMLEY, M.A., CORLEY,A.M. (2015). A perspective-taking manipulation leads to greaterempathy and less pain during the cold pressor task. Pain.

  • LEPAGE, J.F., LORTIE, M., TASCHEREAU-DUMOUCHEL, V. &THÉORET, H. (2009). Validation of French-Canadian Versionsof the Empathy Quotient and Autism Spectrum Quotient.Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science.

  • LEWIS, M.A. (2011). Gain of function: Empathy for the uncertainpatient with cancer. J Clin Oncol.

  • LISHNER, D.A., VITACCO, M.J., HONG, P.Y., MOSLEY, J., MISKA,K. & STOCKS, E.L. (2012). Evaluating the relation betweenpsychopathy and affective empathy: Two preliminary studies. IntJ Offender Ther Comp Criminol.

  • LYONS, C. & HAZLER, R.J. (2002). The influence of studentdevelopment level on improving counselor student empathy.Counselor Education and Supervision.

  • LYSAKER, P.H., HASSON-OHAYON, I., KRAVETZ, S., KENT, J.S.& ROE, D. (2013). Self perception of empathy in schizophrenia:Emotion recognition, insight, and symptoms predict degree ofself and interviewer agreement. Psychiatry Res.

  • LOUREIRO, J., GONÇALVES-PEREIRA, M., TRANCAS, B.,CALDAS-DE-ALMEIDA, J.M. & CASTRO-CALDAS, A. (2011).Empathy in the doctor-patient relationship as viewed by first-year medical students: Data on validity and sensibility to changeof the Jefferson Measure in Portugal. Acta Med Port.

  • LOW, M. & LaSCALA, S. (2015). Medical memoir: A tool to teachempathy to nursing students. Nurse Educ Today.

  • LÜDTKE, J., BURKHARD, M.S. & JACOBS, A.M. (2014). Immersingin the stillness of an early morning: Testing the mood empathyhypothesis of poetry reception. Psychology of Aesthetics,Creativity, and the Arts.

  • MANGIONE, S., KANE, G.C., CARUSO, J.W., GONNELLA, J.S.,NASCA, T.J. & HOJAT, M. (2002). Assessment of empathy indifferent years of internal medicine training. Med Teach.

  • MARKIN, R. (2011). Does my group know how I feel? Measuringintellectual empathy in groups using the social relations model.Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice.

  • MARCI, C.D. (2008). Measuring empathy during psychotherapy.Harvard Health Publications. The Harvard Mental Health Letter.

  • MARTINEZ, A.G., STUEWIG, J. & TANGNEY, J.P. (2014). Canperspective-taking reduce crime? Examining a pathway throughempathic-concern and guilt-proneness. Pers Soc Psychol Bull.

  • MATHERSUL, D., McDONALD, S. & RUSHBY, J.A. (2013).Understanding advanced theory of mind and empathy in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder. J Clin ExpNeuropsychol.

  • McCORMICK, L.M., BRUMM, M.C., BEADLE, J.N., PARADISO,S., YAMADA, T. & ANDREASEN, N. (2012). Mirror neuronfunction, psychosis, and empathy in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res.

  • McDONALD, P., ASHTON, K., BARRATT, R., DOYLE, S., IMESON,D., MEIR, A. & RISSER, G. (2015). Clinical realism: A newliterary genre and a potential tool for encouraging empathy inmedical students. BMC Med Educ.

  • McKEEVER, R. (2015). Vicarious experience: Experimentallytesting the effects of empathy for media characters with severedepression and the intervening role of perceived similarity.Health Commun.

  • McLELLAN, T. & McKINLAY, A. (2013). Sensitivity to emotion,empathy and theory of mind: Adult performance followingchildhood TBI. Brain Inj.

  • MELCHERS, M., MONTAG, C., MARKETT, S. & REUTER, M.(2015). Assessment of empathy via self-report and behaviouralparadigms: Data on convergent and discriminant validity. CognNeuropsychiatry.

  • MERCER, S.W., MAXWELL, M., HEANEY, D. & WATT, G.C. (2004).The consultation and relational empathy (CARE) measure:Development and preliminary validation and reliability of anempathy-based consultation process measure. Fam Pract.

  • MERCER, S.W., McCONNACHIE, A., MAXWELL, M., HEANEY,D. & WATT, G.C. (2005). Relevance and practical use of theConsultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) Measure ingeneral practice. Fam Pract.

  • MICHAELS, T.M., HORAN, W.P., GINGER, E.J., MARTINOVICH,Z., PINKHAM, A.E. & SMITH, M.J. (2014). Cognitive empathycontributestopoorsocialfunctioninginschizophrenia:Evidencefrom a new self-report measure of cognitive and affectiveempathy. Psychiatry Res.

  • MICHALEC, B. (2010). An assessment of medical school stressorson preclinical students’ levels of clinical empathy. CurrentPsychology.

  • MOMMAERTS, J.L., GOUBERT, L. & DEVROEY, D. (2012).Empathy beyond the conceptual level: Core nonspecific factorsof psychotherapy. Perspect Biol Med.

  • MONTANARI, P., PETRUCCI, C., RUSSO, S., MURRAY, I.,DIMONTE, V. & LANCIA, L. (2015). Psychometric propertiesof the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professional Student’sversion: An Italian validation study with nursing students. NursHealth Sci.

  • MORRIS, R., BRAMHAM, J., SMITH, E. & TCHANTURIA, K.(2014). Empathy and social functioning in anorexia nervosabefore and after recovery. Cogn Neuropsychiatry.

  • MORSANYI, K., PRIMI, C., HANDLEY, S.J., CHIESI, F. & GALLI,S. (2012). Are systemizing and autistic traits related to talentand interest in mathematics and engineering? Testing some ofthe central claims of the empathizing-systemizing theory. Br JPsychol.

  • MUELLER,M.A.&WAAS,G.A.(2002).Collegestudents’perceptionsof suicide: the role of empathy on attitudes, evaluation, andresponsiveness. Death Stud.

  • MUSSO, C.G. & ENZ, P.A. (2015). Art as an instrument to developempathy. Arch Argent Pediatr.

  • NEUMANN, M., SCHEFFER, C., LÄNGLER, A., TAUSCHEL, D.,JOOS, S., LUTZ, G. & EDELHÄUSER, F. (2010). Relevance andbarriers of physician empathy in daily practice – current stateof research and qualitative survey of physicians. Rehabilitation(Stuttg).

  • NEUMANN, M., WIRTZ, M., BOLLSCHWEILER, E., WARM, M.,WOLF, J. & PFAFF, H. (2008). Psychometric evaluation of theGerman version of the “Consultation and Relational Empathy”(CARE) measure at the example of cancer patients. PsychotherapyPsychosomatic Medical Psychology.

  • NEW, A.S., ROT, M., RIPOLL, L.H., PEREZ-RODRIGUEZ,M., LAZARUS, S., ZIPURSKY, E., WEINSTEIN, S.R.,KOENIGSBERG, H.W., HAZLETT, E.A., GOODMAN, M. &SIEVER L.J. (2012). Empathy and alexithymia in borderlinepersonality disorder: clinical and laboratory measures. Journal ofPersonality Disorders.

  • NOMURA, K. & AKAI, S. (2012). Empathy with fictional stories:Reconsideration of the fantasy scale of the interpersonalreactivity index. Psychol Rep.

  • NORMAN, M., AMBROSE, S.A. & HUSTON, T.A. (2006). Assessingand addressing faculty morale: Cultivating consciousness,empathy, and empowerment. Review of Higher Education.

  • NORRING, M., WIKMAN, I., HOKKANEN, A.H., KUJALA, M.V. &HÄNNINEN, L. (2014). Empathic veterinarians score cattle painhigher. Vet J.

  • O‘SHEA, E.C., PAVIA, S., DYER, M., CRADDOCK, G. & MURPHY,N. (2014). Measuring the design of empathetic buildings: Areview of universal design evaluation methods. Disabil RehabilAssist Technol.

  • O’CONNOR, K., KING, R., MALONE, K.M. & GUERANDEL, A.(2014). Clinical examiners, simulated patients, and studentself-assessed empathy in medical students during a psychiatryobjective structured clinical examination. Acad Psychiatry.

  • OLDERBAK, S., SASSENRATH, C., KELLER, J. & WILHELM, O.(2014). An emotion-differentiated perspective on empathy withthe emotion specific empathy questionnaire. Front Psychol

  • PARK, K.H., ROH, H., SUH, D.H. & HOJAT, M. (2015). Empathyin Korean medical students: Findings from a nationwide survey.Med Teach.

  • PARO, H.B., DAUD-GALLOTTI, R.M., TIBÉRIO, I.C., PINTO, R.M.& MARTINS, M.A. (2012). Brazilian version of the JeffersonScale of Empathy: Psychometric properties and factor analysis.

  • BMC Med Educ.PEDERSEN, A.F., CARLSEN, A.H. & VEDSTED, P. (2015).Association of GPs’ risk attitudes, level of empathy, and burnoutstatus with PSA testing in primary care. Br J Gen Pract.

  • PÉLOQUIN, K. & LAFONTAINE, M.F. (2010). Measuring empathyin couples: Validity and reliability of the Interpersonal ReactivityIndex for couples. J Pers Assess.

  • PFALLER, M., VOLBERG, G. & FISCHER, P. (2012). Letter on

  • Yamada and Decety (2009): Unconscious affective processingand empathy: an investigation of subliminal priming on thedetection of painful facial expressions. Pain.

  • PINEDA, D.A., AGUIRRE-ACEVEDO, D.C., TRUJILLO, N.,VALENCIA, A.M., PAREJA, Á., TOBÓN, C., VELILLA, L. &IBÁÑEZ, A. (2013). Dimensions of empathy in ex-combatantsof the Colombian armed conflict using a standardized scale. RevColomb Psiquiatr.

  • PRETI, A., VELLANTE, M., BARON-COHEN, S., ZUCCA, G.,PETRETTO, D.R. & MASALA, C. (2011). The EmpathyQuotient: A cross-cultural comparison of the Italian version.Cogn Neuropsychiatry.

  • PREUSCHE, I. & WAGNER-MENGHIN, M. (2013). Rising to thechallenge: Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluationof the adapted German version of the Jefferson Scale of PhysicianEmpathy for Students (JSPE-S). Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract.

  • RALFS, S. & BEAIL, N. (2012). Assessing components of empathyin sex-offenders with intellectual disabilities. J Appl Res IntellectDisabil.

  • RASCH, V., MUHAMMAD, H., URASSA, E. & BERGSTROM, S.(2000). Self-reports of induced abortion: An empathetic settingcan improve the quality of data. American Journal of PublicHealth.

  • RASOAL, C., JUNGERT, T., HAU, S. & ANDERSSON, G. (2011).Development of a Swedish version of the scale of ethnoculturalempathy. Psychology.

  • RENIERS, R.L., CORCORAN, R., DRAKE, R., SHRYANE, N.M. &VÖLLM, B.A. (2011). The QCAE: A questionnaire of cognitiveand affective empathy. J Pers Assess.

  • RICHTER, D. & KUNZMANN, U. (2011). Age differences in threefacets of empathy: Performance-based evidence. Psychology andAging.

  • RYSEWYK, SV. (2009). Comment on: Unconscious affectiveprocessing and empathy: An investigation of subliminal primingon the detection of painful facial expressions. Pain.

  • RODRIGUEZ, C.M., COOK, A.E. & JEDRZIEWSKI, C.T. (2012).Reading between the lines: Implicit assessment of the associationof parental attributions and empathy with abuse risk. Child AbuseNegl.

  • ROFF, S. (2015). Reconsidering the “decline” of medical studentempathy as reported in studies using the Jefferson Scale ofPhysician Empathy-Student version (JSPE-S). Med Teach.

  • ROH, M.S., HAHM, B.J., LEE, D.H. & SUH, D.H. (2010). Evaluationof empathy among Korean medical students: a cross-sectionalstudy using the Korean version of the Jefferson Scale of PhysicianEmpathy. Teach Learn Med.

  • SAMSON, A.C., STANFORD, A.C. & HUBER, O.W. (2010). ShortGermanversionsofempathizingandsystemizingself-assessmentscales. Swiss Journal of Psychology/Schweizerische Zeitschrift fürPsychologie/Revue Suisse de Psychologie.

  • SCHNEIDER, K., REGENBOGEN, C., PAULY, K.D., GOSSEN, A.,SCHNEIDER, D.A., MEVISSEN, L., MICHEL, T.M., GUR, R.C.,HABEL, U. & SCHNEIDER, F. (2013). Evidence for gender-specific endophenotypes in high-functioning autism spectrumdisorder during empathy. Autism Res.

  • SEIDEL, E.M., HABEL, U., FINKELMEYER, A., HASMANN, A.,DOBMEIER, M. & DERNTL, B. (2012). Risk or resilience?Empathic abilities in patients with bipolar disorders and theirfirst-degree relatives. Journal of Psychiatry Responses.

  • SHARIAT, S.V., ESHTAD, E. & ANSARI, S. (2010). Empathy and itscorrelates in Iranian physicians: A preliminary psychometricstudy of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Med Teach.

  • SHARIAT, S.V. & HABIBI, M. (2013). Empathy in Iranian medicalstudents: measurement model of the Jefferson scale of empathy.Med Teach.

  • SHASHIKUMAR, R., CHAUDHARY, R., RYALI, V.S., BHAT, P.S.,SRIVASTAVA, K., PRAKASH, J. & BASANNAR, D. (2014).Cross sectional assessment of empathy among undergraduatesfrom a medical college. Med J Armed Forces India.

  • SHEA, S.C. & BARNEY, C. (2015). Teaching clinical interviewingskills using role-playing: Conveying empathy to performinga suicide assessment: A primer for individual role-playing andscripted group role-playing. Psychiatr Clin North Am.

  • SIMPSON, J.A., ORIÑA, M.M. & ICKES, W. (2003). when accuracyhurts, and when it helps: A test of the empathic accuracymodel in marital interactions. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology.

  • SMITH, M.J., HORAN, W.P., COBIA, D.J., KARPOUZIAN, T.M.,FOX, J.M., REILLY, J.L. & BREITER, H.C. (2014). Performance-based empathy mediates the influence of working memory onsocial competence in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull.

  • SMITH, M.J., HORAN, W.P., KARPOUZIAN, T.M., ABRAM,S.V., COBIA, D.J. & CSERNANSKY, J.G. (2012). Self-reportedempathy deficits are uniquely associated with poor functioningin schizophrenia. Schizophr Res.

  • SMITH, M.J., SCHROEDER, M.P., ABRAM, S.V., GOLDMAN, M.B.,PARRISH, T.B., WANG, X., DERNTL, B., HABEL, U., DECETY,J., REILLY, J.L., CSERNANSKY, J.G. & BREITER, H.C. (2015).Alterations in brain activation during cognitive empathy arerelated to social functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull.

  • SONNBY-BORGSTRÖM, M., JÖNSSON, P. & SVENSSON, O.(2003). Emotional empathy as related to mimicry reactions atdifferent levels of information processing. Journal of NonverbalBehavior.

  • SPRENG, R.N., McKINNON, M.C., MAR, R.A. & LEVINE, B.(2009). The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire: Scale developmentand initial validation of a factor-analytic solution to multipleempathy measures. J Pers Assess.

  • STANSFIELD, R.B., SCHWARTZ, A., O’BRIEN, C.L., DEKHTYAR,M., DUNHAM, L. & QUIRK, M. (2015). Development ofa metacognitive effort construct of empathy during clinicaltraining: a longitudinal study of the factor structure of theJefferson Scale of Empathy. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract.

  • STEELE, D.J. & HULSMAN, R.L. (2008). Empathy, authenticity,assessment and simulation: A conundrum in search of a solution.Patient Educ Couns.

  • STEINHAUSEN, S., OMMEN, O., THÜM, S., LEFERING, R.,KOEHLER,T.,NEUGEBAUER,E.&PFAFF,H.(2014).Physicianempathy and subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcomein trauma surgery patients. Patient Education Counselling.

  • SUCKSMITH, E., ALLISON, C., BARON-COHEN, S.,CHAKRABARTI, B. & HOEKSTRA, R.A. (2013). Empathy andemotion recognition in people with autism, first-degree relatives,and controls. Neuropsychologia.

  • SUH, D.H., HONG, J.S., LEE, D.H., GONNELLA, J.S. & HOJAT, M.(2012). The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: A preliminarypsychometric study and group comparisons in Koreanphysicians. Med Teach.

  • SUZUKI, Y., GALLI, L., IKEDA, A., ITAKURA, S. & KITAZAKI,M. (2015). Measuring empathy for human and robot hand painusing electroencephalography. Sci Rep.

  • TAVAKOL, S., DENNICK, R. & TAVAKOL, M. (2011). Psychometricproperties and confirmatory factor analysis of the Jefferson Scaleof Physician Empathy. BMC Med Educ.

  • TEHERANI, A., HAUER, K.E. & O’SULLIVAN, P. (2008). Cansimulations measure empathy? Considerations on how to assessbehavioral empathy via simulations. Patient Educ Couns.

  • TELLES, S., SINGH, N. & BALKRISHNA, A. (2015). Augmentingbrain function with meditation: Can detachment coincide withempathy? Front Syst Neurosci.

  • TENO, J.M. & CONNOR, S.R. (2009). Referring a patient and familyto high-quality palliative care at the close of life: “We met a newpersonality… with this level of compassion and empathy”. JAMA.

  • THOMA, P. & BELLEBAUM, C. (2012). Your Error’s Got me Feeling- How Empathy Relates to the Electrophysiological Correlates ofPerformance Monitoring. Front Hum Neurosci.

  • THOMA,P.,NORRA,C.,JUCKEL,G.,SUCHAN,B.&BELLEBAUM,C. (2015). Performance monitoring and empathy during activeand observational learning in patients with major depression.Biol Psychol.

  • THORSTEN, M.E. & TOPOLINSKI, S. (2015). Spatial and empathicperspective-taking correlate on a dispositional level. SocialCognition.

  • TIERNEY, D.W. & McCABE, M.P. (2001). An evaluation of self-report measures of cognitive distortions and empathy amongAustralian sex offenders. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

  • TRAN, U.S., LAIREITER, A.R., SCHMITT, D.P., NEUNER, C.,LEIBETSEDER, M., SZENTE-VORACEK, S.L. & VORACEK,M. (2013). Factorial structure and convergent and discriminantvalidity of the E (Empathy) scale. Psychol Rep.

  • TRUMPETER, N.N., WATSON, P.J., O’LEARY, B.J. &WEATHINGTON, B.L. (2008). Self-functioning and perceivedparenting: Relations of parental empathy and love inconsistencywith narcissism, depression, and self-esteem. The Journal ofGenetic Psychology.

  • TSIANTOU,D.,LAZARIDOU,D.,COOLIDGE,T.,ARAPOSTATHIS,K.N. & KOTSANOS, N. (2013). Psychometric properties of theGreek version of the Toronto Composite Empathy Scale in Greekdental students. Eur J Dent Educ.

  • ULLRICH, P., WOLLBRÜCK, D., DANKER, H. & SINGER, S. (2011).Evaluation of psycho-social training for speech therapists inoncology. Impact on general communication skills and empathy.A qualitative pilot study. Journal of Cancer Education.

  • VACHON, D.D. & LYNAM, D.R. (2015). Fixing the problem withempathy: Development and validation of the affective andcognitive measure of empathy. Assessment.

  • VAN VUGT, E., ASSCHER, J., HENDRIKS, J., STAMS, G.J.,BIJLEVELD, C. & VAN DER LAAN, P. (2012). Assessmentof moral judgment and empathy in young sex offenders: Acomparison of clinical judgment and test results. Int J OffenderTher Comp Criminol.

  • VEMURI, K. & SURAMPUDI, B.R. (2015). an exploratoryinvestigation of functional network connectivity of empathy anddefault mode networks in a free-viewing task. Brain Connect.

  • VITAGLIONE, G.D. & BARNETT, M.A. (2003). Assessing a newdimension of empathy: Empathic anger as a predictor of helpingand punishing desires. Motivation and Emotion.

  • VÖLLM, B.A., TAYLOR, A.N.W., RICHARDSON, P., CORCORAN,R., STIRLING, J., McKIE, S., DEAKIN, J.F.W. & ELLIOTT, R.(2006). Neuronal correlates of theory of mind and empathy: Afunctional magnetic resonance imaging study in a nonverbaltask. NeuroImage.

  • WALOCHA, E., TOMASZEWSKA, I.M. & MIZIA, E. (2013).Empathy level differences between Polish surgeons andphysicians. Folia Med Cracov.

  • WANG, Y., YUAN, B., ROBERTS, K., WANG, Y., LIN, C. & SIMONS,R.F.(2014).Howfriendlyisalittlefriendlycompetition?Evidenceof self-interest and empathy during outcome evaluation. IntJournal Psychophysiology.

  • WANG, Y., NEUMANN, D.L., SHUM, D.H., LIU, W.H., SHI,H.S., YAN, C., LUI, S.S., ZHANG, Q., LI, Z., CHEUNG, E.F.& CHAN, R.C. (2013). Cognitive empathy partially mediatesthe association between negative schizotypy traits and socialfunctioning. Psychiatry Res.

  • WANG, X., GU, X., FAN, J., WANG, S., ZHAO, F., HOF, P.R., LIU,P. & GAO, Z. (2014). Recovery of empathetic function followingresection of insular gliomas. Journal of Neurooncology.

  • WANG, Y.W., DAVIDSON, M.M., YAKUSHKO, O.F., SAVOY, H.B.,TAN, J.A. & BLEIER, J.K. (2003). The Scale of EthnoculturalEmpathy: Development, validation, and reliability. Journal ofCounseling Psychology.

  • WARD, J., SCHAAL, M., SULLIVAN, J., BOWEN, M.E., ERDMANN,J.B. & HOJAT, M. (2009). Reliability and validity of the JeffersonScale of Empathy in undergraduate nursing students. Journal ofNursing Measurement.

  • WEAR, D. & VARLEY, J.D. (2008). Rituals of verification: Therole of simulation in developing and evaluating empathiccommunication. Patient Educ Couns.

  • WEBSTER, S.D. (2002). Assessing victim empathy in sexual offendersusing the victim letter task. Sex Abuse.

  • WEN, D., MA, X., LI, H. & XIAN, B. (2013). Empathy in Chinesephysicians: Preliminary psychometrics of the Jefferson Scale ofPhysician Empathy (JSPE). Med Teach.

  • WHEELWRIGHT, S.,, BARON-COHEN, S., GOLDENFELD, N.,DELANEY,J.,FINE,D.,SMITH,R.,WEIL,L.&WAKABAYASHI,A. (2006). Predicting Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) from theSystemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) and Empathy Quotient(EQ). Brain Res.

  • WILLIAMS, B., BROWN, T., BOYLE, M. & DOUSEK, S. (2013).Psychometric testing of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy HealthProfession Students’ version with Australian paramedic students.Nurs Health Sci.

  • WILLIAMS, J.H., CAMERON, I.M., ROSS, E., BRAADBAART, L.& WAITER, G.D. (2015). Perceiving and expressing feelingsthrough actions in relation to individual differences in empathictraits: The Action and Feelings Questionnaire (AFQ). Cogn AffectBehav Neurosci.

  • WILLIAMS, J.H., NICOLSON, A.T., CLEPHAN, K.J., DE GRAUW,H. & PERRETT, D.I. (2013). A novel method testing the ability toimitate composite emotional expressions reveals an associationwith empathy. PLoS One.

  • WINEFIELD, H.R. & CHUR-HANSEN, A. (2000). Evaluatingthe outcome of communication skill teaching for entry-levelmedical students: Does knowledge of empathy increase? MedicalEducation.

  • WIRTZ,, M., BOECKER, M., FORKMANN, T. & NEUMANN, M.(2011). Evaluation of the “Consultation and Relational Empathy”(CARE) measure by means of Rasch-analysis at the example ofcancer patients. Patient Education Counselling.

  • WRIGHT, B., MCKENDREE, J., MORGAN, L., ALLGAR, V.L. &BROWN, A. (2014). Examiner and simulated patient ratings ofempathy in medical student final year clinical examination: Arethey useful? BMC Med Educ.

  • WRIGHT, D.B. & SKAGERBERG, E.M. (2012). Measuringempathizing and systemizing with a large US sample. PLoS One.

  • YAMADA, M. & DECETY, J. (2009). Unconscious affectiveprocessing and empathy: An investigation of subliminal primingon the detection of painful facial expressions. Pain.

  • YANG, K.T. & YANG, J.H. (2013). A study of the effect of a visualarts-based program on the scores of Jefferson Scale for PhysicianEmpathy. BMC Med Educ.

  • YOUNG, S., SEDGWICK, O., PERKINS, D., LISTER, H.,SOUTHGATE, K., DAS, M., KUMARI, V., BISHOPP, D. &GUDJONSSO, G.H. (2015). Measuring victim empathy amongmentally disordered offenders: Validating VERA-2. J Psychiatr Res.

  • YU, J. & KIRK, M. (2009). Evaluation of empathy measurement toolsin nursing: Systematic review. Journal Advanced Nurse.

  • ZELINKOVÁ, J., SHAW, D.J., MARECEK, R., MIKL, M., URBÁNEK,T., HAVLÍCKOVÁ, D., ZÁMECNÍK, P., HAITOVÁ, P. &BRÁZDIL, M. (2014). An evaluation of traffic-awarenesscampaign videos: Empathy induction is associated with brainfunction within superior temporal sulcus. Behavioral and BrainFunctions.

SHOW ALL REFERENCES (291)HIDE REFERENCES

Related articles

Article info

Issue:

Keywords:

Views:

61

Downloads:

31

Cite the article:

Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.


Ilgunaite Guste. Giromini Luciano. Di Girolamo Marzia. Measuring empathy: A literature review of available tools. BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2017;280(1):2-28.

Citation Tool

How to cite this article

Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.


Ilgunaite Guste. Giromini Luciano. Di Girolamo Marzia. Measuring empathy: A literature review of available tools. BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2017;280(1):2-28.