Mediating role of self-handicapping behaviors between academic Psychological Capital and academic performance among university students

Adnan Adil, Sadaf Ameer, Saba Ghayas, Sadia Niazi, Anam Yousaf

Accepted December 31, 2021

First published December 31, 2021

https://doi.org/10.26387/bpa.292.1

Abstract

The present research explored the mediating role of self-handicapping behaviors between academic PsyCap and academic performance in a purposive sample of university undergraduates (N = 300). The components of academic PsyCap were operationalized through Life Orientation Test-Academics Scale, the self-efficacy subscale from Students’ Approach to Learning Scale, Academic Resilience Scale and Academic Hope Scale, while self-handicapping behaviors were assessed through Self-Handicapping Scale-Revised. Student’s cumulative grade point average (CGPAs) in the previous semesters provided the operationalization of their academic performance. The measurement model of the study revealed a good fit to the data and the structural model indicated positive direct effects of academic PsyCap and the negative effect of self-handicapping behaviors on academic performance. Self-handicapping behaviors mediated between academic PsyCap and CGPA such that academic PsyCap improved CGPA by reducing self-handicapping behaviors. Implications of the study and recommendations for future research have been reflected upon.

References

  • ADIL, A., AMEER, S. & GHAYAS, S. (2019). Mediating role offlow and study engagement between academic psychologicalcapital and perceived academic stress among universitystudents. Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,17 (2), 12-18.

  • ADIL, A., AMEER, S. & GHAYAS, S. (2020). Impact of academicpsychological capital on academic achievement among universityundergraduates: Roles of flow and self-handicapping behavior.PsyCh Journal, 9, 56-66.

  • AKAR, H., DOGAN, Y.B. & ÜSTÜNER, M. (2018). The relationshipsbetween positive and negative perfectionisms, self-handicapping,self-efficacy and academic achievement. European Journal ofContemporary Education, 7 (1), 7-20.

  • BAKKER, A.B. & DEMEROUTI, E. (2008). Towards a model of workengagement. Career Development International, 13 (3), 209-223.

  • BANDURA, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. NewYork, NY: Freeman

  • BARUTÇU YILDIRIM, F. & DEMIR, A. (2020). Self-handicappingamong university students: The role of procrastination, testanxiety, self-esteem, and self-compassion. Psychological Reports,123 (3), 825-843.

  • BECK, B.L., KOONS, S.R. & MILGRIM, D.L. (2000). Correlatesand consequences of behavioral procrastination: The effects ofacademic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem, andself-handicapping. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 3-12.

  • CHANG, E.C., BODEM, M.R., SANNA, L.J. & FABIAN, C.G. (2011).Optimism-pessimismandadjustmentincollegestudents:Istheresupport for the utility of a domain-specific approach to studyingoutcome expectancies? The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6 (5),418-428.

  • CLARKE, I.E. & MacCANN, C. (2016). Internal and external aspectsof self-handicapping reflect the distinction between motivationsand behaviors: Evidence from the self-handicapping scale.Personality and Individual Differences, 100, 6-11.

  • COVINGTON, M.V. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worthperspective on motivation and school reform. New York, NY:Cambridge University Press.

  • CUADRA, H. & FLORENZANO, R. (2003). El bienestar subjetivo:Hacia una psicología positiva. Revista de Psicología, 12 (1), 83-96.

  • DECI, E.L. & RYAN, R.M. (2012). Self-determination theory. InP.A.M. Van Lange, A.W. Kruglanski & E.T. Higgins (Eds.),Handbook of theories of social psychology. Sage PublicationsLtd.

  • ELLIOT, A.J. & CHURCH, M.A. (2003). A motivational analysisof defensive pessimism and self-handicapping. Journal ofPersonality, 71 (3), 369-396.

  • GADBOIS, S.A. & STURGEON, R.D. (2011). Academic self-handicapping: Relationships with learning specific and generalself-perceptions and academic performance over time. BritishJournal of Educational Psychology, 81 (2), 207-222.

  • HENDRIX, K.S. & HIRT, E.R. (2009). Stressed out over possiblefailure: The role of regulatory fit on claimed self-handicapping.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45 (1), 51-59.

  • LUTHANS, F. (2002). The need for and meaning of positiveorganizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23,695-706.

  • LUTHANS, F., AVEY, J.B., AVOLIO, B.J., NORMAN, S.M. & COMBS,G.M. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward amicro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27 (3),387-393.

  • LUTHANS, F., AVOLIO, B.J., AVEY, J.B. & NORMAN, S.M. (2007).Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationshipwith performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60 (3),541-572.

  • LUTHANS, B.C., LUTHANS, K.W. & JENSEN, S.M. (2012). Theimpact of business school students’ psychological capital onacademic performance. Journal of Education for Business, 87 (5),253-259.

  • LUTHANS, F., YOUSSEF, C.M. & AVOLIO, B.J. (2007). Psychologicalcapital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford, UK:Oxford University Press.

  • MAATTA, S., STATTIN, H. & NURMI, J.E. (2002). Achievementstrategies at school: Types and correlates. Journal of Adolescence,25 (1), 31-46.

  • MALONE, L.D. (2010). Individual differences and stress reactions aspredictors of performance in pilot trainees. Unpublished doctoraldissertation, Kansas State University.

  • MARSH, H.W., HAU, K., ARTELT, C., BAUMERT, J. & PESCHAR,J.L. (2006). OECD’s brief self-report measure of educationalpsychology’s most useful affective constructs: Cross-cultural,psychometric comparisons across 25 countries. InternationalJournal of Testing, 6 (4), 311-360.

  • MARTIN, A.J., MARSH, H.W. & DEBUS, R.L. (2001). Self-handicapping and defensive pessimism: Exploring a model ofpredictors and outcomes from a self-protection perspective.Journal of Educational Psychology, 93 (1), 87-96.

  • MARTIN, A. & MARSH, H. (2006). Academic resilience and itspsychological and educational correlates: A construct validityapproach. Psychology in the Schools, 43 (3), 267-281.

  • MASTEN, A.S. & REED, M.G. (2002). Resilience in development. InC.R. Snyder & S. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology.Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

  • McCREA, S.M. & HIRT, E.R. (2001). The role of ability judgmentsin self-handicapping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,27, 1378-1389.

  • MIDGLEY, C. & URDAN, T. (2001). Academic self-handicappingand achievement goals: A further examination. ContemporaryEducational Psychology, 26 (1), 61-75.

  • NÚÑEZ, J.C., FREIRE, C., DEL MAR FERRADÁS, M., VALLE, A.& XU, J. (2021). Perceived parental involvement and studentengagement with homework in secondary school: The mediatingrole of self-handicapping. Current Psychology, 1-12.

  • PAJARES, F. (2001). Toward a positive psychology of academicmotivation. The Journal of Educational Research, 95 (1), 27-35.

  • RHODEWALT, F. (1994). Conceptions of ability, achievement goals,and individual differences in self-handicapping behavior: Onthe application of implicit theories. Journal of Personality, 62 (1),67-85.

  • RHODEWALT, F. & HILL, S.K. (1995). Self-handicapping in theclassroom: The effects of claimed self-handicaps on responsesto academic failure. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16 (4),397-416.

  • RHODEWALT, F. & VOHS, K.D. (2005). Defensive strategies,motivation, and the self: A self-regulatory process view. InA.J. Elliot & C.S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence andmotivation. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

  • SCHWINGER, M. & STIENSMEIER-PELSTER, J. (2012). Effects ofmotivational regulation on effort and achievement: A mediationmodel. International Journal of Educational Research, 56, 35-47.

  • SCHWINGER,M.,WIRTHWEIN,L.,LEMMER,G.&STEINMAYR,R. (2014). Academic self-handicapping and achievement:A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106 (3),744-761.

  • SELIGMAN, M.E. (2006). Learned optimism: How to change yourmind and your life. Vintage.

  • SHOREY, H.S. & SNYDER, C.R. (2004). Development and validationof the Domain Hope Scale-Revised. Unpublished manuscript,University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

  • SIU, O.L., BAKKER, A.B. & JIANG, X. (2014). Psychological capitalamong university students: Relationships with study engagementand intrinsic motivation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15 (4),979-994.

  • SMITH, J.L., HARDY, T. & ARKIN, R. (2009). When practice doesn’tmake perfect: Effort expenditure as an active behavioral self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Research in Personality, 43 (1),95-98.

  • SNYDER, C.R. (2005). Teaching: The lessons of hope. Journal ofSocial and Clinical Psychology, 24 (1), 72-84.

  • SOLTANI, Z., JAMALI, N., KHOJASTEHNIAM, A. & DARGAHI,S. (2016). Role of self-efficacy and psychological resiliency inacademic procrastination of students. Education Strategies inMedical, 9 (4), 277-284.

  • STAJKOVIC, A.D. (2006). Development of a core confidence-higherorder construct. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (6), 1208-1224.

  • SWEETMAN, D. & LUTHANS, F. (2010). The power of positivepsychology: Psychological capital and work engagement. In A.B.Bakker & M.P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook ofessential theory and research. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

  • TÖRÖK, L., SZABÓ, Z.P. & TÓTH, L. (2018). A critical reviewof the literature on academic self-handicapping: Theory,manifestations, prevention and measurement. Social Psychologyof Education, 21, 1175-1202.

  • VANNO, V., KAEMKATE, W. & WONGWANICH, S. (2014).Relationships between academic performance, perceived grouppsychological capital, and positive psychological capital of Thaiundergraduate students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,116, 3226-3230.

  • YOUSSEF, C.M. & LUTHANS, F. (2011). Positive psychologicalcapital in the workplace: Where we are and where we need to go.In K.M. Sheldon, T.B. Kashdan & M.F. Steger (Eds.), DesigningPositive Psychology. New York,NY: Oxford University Press.

  • ZUCKERMAN, M., KIEFFER, S.C. & KNEE, C.R. (1998).Consequences of self-handicapping: Effects on coping, academicperformance, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 74, 1619-1628.

  • ZUCKERMAN, M. & TSAI, F.F. (2005). Costs of self-handicapping.Journal of Personality, 73 (2), 411-442.

SHOW ALL REFERENCES (48)HIDE REFERENCES

Related articles

Article info

Cite the article:

Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.


Adil Adnan. Ameer Sadaf. Ghayas Saba. Niazi Sadia. Yousaf Anam. Mediating role of self-handicapping behaviors between academic Psychological Capital and academic performance among university students. BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2021;292(1):2-12. doi:10.26387/bpa.292.1.

Citation Tool

How to cite this article

Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.


Adil Adnan. Ameer Sadaf. Ghayas Saba. Niazi Sadia. Yousaf Anam. Mediating role of self-handicapping behaviors between academic Psychological Capital and academic performance among university students. BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2021;292(1):2-12. doi:10.26387/bpa.292.1.