Social network sites addiction, Internet addiction and individual differences: The role of Big-Five personality traits, behavioral inhibition/activation systems and loneliness

Alessio Tesi

Accepted August 31, 2018

First published August 31, 2018



Social network sites addiction, Internet addiction and iIndividual differences: The role of Big-Five personality traits, behavioral inhibition/


  • ABOUDJAOUDE, E., KORAN, L.M., GAMEL, N., LARGE, M. &SERPE, R.T. (2006). Potential markers for problematic Internetuse: A telephone survey of 2513 adults. CNS Spectrums, 11 (10),750-755.
  • ANDREASSEN, C.S. (2015). Online social network site addiction: acomprehensive review. Current Addiction Reports, 2 (2), 175-184.

  • ANDREASSEN, C.S., GRIFFITHS, M.D., GJERTSEN, S.R.,KROSSBAKKEN, E., KVAM, S. & PALLESEN, S. (2013). Therelationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factormodel of personality. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2 (2),90-99.

  • ANDREASSEN, C.S. & PALLESEN, S. (2014). Social network siteaddiction-an overview. Current pharmaceutical design, 20 (25),4053-4061.

  • ANDREASSEN, C.S., TORSHEIM, T., BRUNBORG, G.S. &PALLESEN, S. (2012). Development of a Facebook addictionscale. Psychological reports, 110 (2), 501-517.

  • BOZOGLAN, B., DEMIRER, V. & SAHIN, I. (2013). Loneliness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction as predictors of Internet addiction:A cross-sectional study among Turkish university students.Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54, 313-319.

  • BYUN, S., RUFFINI, C., MILLS, J.E., DOUGLAS, A.C., NIANG,M., STEPCHENKOVA, S., LEE, S.K., LOUTFI, J., LEE,J.K., ATALLAH, M. & BLANTON, M. (2009). Internetaddiction: Metasynthesis of 1996-2006 quantitative research.CyberPsychology and Behavior, 12 (2), 203-204.
  • CAPLAN, S.E. (2003). Preference for online social interaction– A theory of problematic internet use and psychosocialwell-being. Communication Research, 30 (6), 625-648.
  • CARVER, C.S. & WHITE, T.L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition,behavioral activation, and affective responses to impendingreward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 67, 319-333.

  • CAVALLERO, P., FERRARI, M.G. & BERTOCCI, B. (2006). Lasolitudine degli anziani autosufficienti [The loneliness of self-sufficient elders]. Giornale di Gerontologia, 54, 24-27.

  • DETERS, F.G. & MEHL, M.R. (2013). Does posting Facebookstatus updates increase or decrease loneliness? An online socialnetworking experiment. Social psychological and personalityscience, 4 (5), 579-586.
  • DONG,G.,WANG,J.,YANG,X.&ZHOU,H.(2013).Riskpersonalitytraits of Internet addiction: A longitudinal study of Internet‐addicted Chinese university students. Asia‐Pacific Psychiatry, 5(4), 316-321.
  • ELLISON,N.B.,VITAK,J.,GRAY,R.&LAMPE,C.(2014).Cultivatingsocial resources on social network sites: Facebook relationshipmaintenance behaviors and their role in social capital processes.Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 19 (4), 855-870.

  • GRIEVE, R., INDIAN, M., WITTEVEEN, K., TOLAN, G.A. &MARRINGTON, J. (2013). Face-to-face or Facebook: Cansocial connectedness be derived online? Computers in HumanBehavior, 29 (3), 604-609.

  • GRIFFITHS, M.D. (2010). The role of context in online gamingexcess and addiction: Some case study evidence. InternationalJournal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8 (1), 119-125.

  • GRIFFITHS, M.D., KUSS, D.J., BILLIEUX, J. & PONTES, H.M.(2016). The evolution of Internet addiction: A global perspective.Addictive behaviors, 53, 193-195.

  • GRIFFITHS, M.D., KUSS, D.J. & DEMETROVICS, Z. (2014). Socialnetworking addiction: An overview of preliminary findings.In K.P. Rosenberg & L.C. Feder (Eds.), Behavioral addictions:Criteria, evidence, and treatment. London: Academic.

  • GUEDES, E., NARDI, A.E., GUIMARÃES, F.M.C.L., MACHADO,S. & KING, A.L.S. (2016). Social networking, a new onlineaddiction: A review of Facebook and other addiction disorders.Medical Express, 3 (1), 1-6.

  • GUIDO, G., PELUSO, A.M., CAPESTRO, M. & MIGLIETTA, M.(2015). An Italian version of the 10-item Big Five Inventory:An application to hedonic and utilitarian shopping values.Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 135-140.

  • HAYES, A.F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool forobserved variable mediation, moderation, and conditional processmodeling [White paper]. Retrieved from public/process2012.pdf

  • HONG, F.Y., HUANG, D.H., LIN, H.Y. & CHIU, S.L. (2014). Analysisof the psychological traits, Facebook usage, and Facebookaddiction model of Taiwanese university students. Telematicsand Informatics, 31 (4), 597-606.

  • HU, L. & BENTLER, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes incovariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versusnew alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
  • KIM, J., LAROSE, R. & PENG, W. (2009). Loneliness as the cause andthe effect of problematic internet use: The relationship betweeninternet use and psychological well-being. Cyberpsychologyand Behavior, 12 (4), 451-455.
  • KLINE, R.B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equationmodeling. New York: The Guilford Press.

  • KOC, M. & GULYAGCI, S. (2013). Facebook addiction amongTurkish college students: The role of psychological health,demographic, and usage characteristics. Cyberpsychology,Behavior and Social Networking, 16 (4), 279-284.

  • KRÄMER, N.C. & WINTER, S. (2008). Impression management 2.0:The relationship of self-esteem, extraversion, self-efficacy, andself-presentation within social networking sites. Journal of mediapsychology, 20 (3), 106-116.
  • KRAUT, R., PATTERSON, M., LUNDMARK, V., KIESLER, S.,MUKOPHADHYAY, T. & SCHERLIS, W. (1998). Internetparadox: A social technology that reduces social involvement andpsychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53, 1017-1031.

  • KUSS, D.J. & BILLIEUX, J. (2016). Technological addictions:Conceptualisation, measurement, etiology and treatment.Addictive Behaviors.
  • KUSS, D.J. & GRIFFITHS, M.D. (2012). Internet and gamingaddiction: a systematic literature review of neuroimaging studies.Brain sciences, 2 (3), 347-374.

  • KUSS, D.J., GRIFFITHS, M.D., KARILA, L. & BILLIEUX, J. (2014).Internet addiction: A systematic review of epidemiologicalresearch for the last decade. Current pharmaceutical design, 20(25), 4026-4052.

  • KUSS, D.J., VAN ROOIJ, A.J., SHORTER, G.W., GRIFFITHS, M.D. &VAN DE MHEEN, D. (2013). Internet addiction in adolescents:Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 1987-1996.
  • LEONE, L., PIERRO, A. & MANNETTI, L. (2002). Validità della

  • versione italiana delle Scale BIS/BAS di Carver e White (1994):Generalizzabilità della struttura e relazioni con costrutti affini

  • [Validity of the Italian version of Carver and White’s (1994) BIS/BAS scale: Structure’s generalizability and relationships withother constructs]. Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, 29 (2), 413-436.

  • MacKINNON, D.P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediationanalysis. Routledge.

  • McCRAE, R.R. & COSTA Jr, P.T. (1999). A five-factor theory ofpersonality. Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 2,139-153.MONACIS, L., de PALO, V., GRIFFITHS, M.D. & SINATRA, M.(2017a). Social networking addiction, attachment style, andvalidation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social MediaAddiction Scale. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6 (2), 1-9., L., DE PALO, V., GRIFFITHS, M.D. & SINATRA, M.(2017b). Exploring individual differences in online addictions:The role of identity and attachment. International Journal ofMental Health and Addiction, 15 (4), 853-868.
  • MÜLLER, K.W., BEUTEL, M.E. & WOLFLING, K. (2014). Acontribution to the clinical characterization of internet addictionin a sample of treatment seekers: Validity of assessment, severityof psychopathology and type of co-morbidity. ComprehensivePsychiatry, 55 (4), 770-777.

  • MÜLLER, K.W., DREIER, M., BEUTEL, M.E., DUVEN, E.,GIRALT, S. & WÖLFLING, K. (2016). A hidden type of internetaddiction? Intense and addictive use of social networking sites inadolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 172-177.

  • OSTOVAR, S., ALLAHYAR, N., AMINPOOR, H., MOAFIAN, F.,NOR,M.B.M.&GRIFFITHS,M.D.(2016).Internetaddictionandits psychosocial risks (depression, anxiety, stress and loneliness)among Iranian adolescents and young adults: A structuralequation model in a cross-sectional study. International Journalof Mental Health and Addiction, 14 (3), 257-267.
  • PIES, R. (2009). Should DSM-V designate “Internet addiction” amental disorder? Psychiatry (Edgmont), 6 (2), 31-37.

  • PREACHER, K.J. & HAYES, A.F. (2004). SPSS and SAS proceduresfor estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models.Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36 (4),717-731.
  • RAMMSTEDT,B.&JOHN,O.P.(2007).Measuringpersonalityinoneminute or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventoryin English and German. Journal of research in Personality, 41 (1),203-212.

  • RUSSELL, D., PEPLAU, L.A. & CUTRONA, C.E. (1980). The revisedUCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validityevidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39,472-480.

  • RYAN, T., REECE, J., CHESTER, A. & XENOS, S. (2016). Who getshooked on Facebook? An exploratory typology of problematicFacebook users. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Researchon Cyberspace, 10 (3), article 4.
  • SOSIK, V.S. & BAZAROVA, N.N. (2014). Relational maintenanceon social network sites: How Facebook communicationpredicts relational escalation. Computers in Human Behavior,35, 124-131.

  • STARCEVIC, V. & BILLIEUX, J. (2017). Does the construct ofInternet addiction reflect a single entity or a spectrum ofdisorders? Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14 (1), 5-10.

  • TREUER, T., FABIAN, Z. & FUREDI, J. (2001). Internet addictionassociated with features of impulse control disorder: Is it a realpsychiatric disorder? Journal of Affective Disorders, 66, 283.

  • WEGMANN, E., SNAGOWSKI, J. & BRAND, M. (2016). Excessiveuse of social networking sites: Does it reflect a generalized orspecific form of Internet addiction? Personality and IndividualDifferences, 101, 525.

  • WILSON, K., FORNASIER, S. & WHITE, K.M. (2010). Psychologicalpredictors of young adults’ use of social networking sites.Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13 (2),173-177.

  • WU, A.M., CHEUNG, V.I., KU, L. & HUNG, E.P. (2013).Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networkingsites among Chinese smartphone users. Journal of behavioraladdictions, 2 (3), 160-166.

  • YAO, M.Z. & ZHONG, Z.J. (2014). Loneliness, social contacts andInternet addiction: A cross-lagged panel study. Computers inHuman Behavior, 30, 164-170.
  • YEN, J.Y., KO, C.H., YEN, C.F., CHEN, C.S. & CHEN, C.C. (2009).The association between harmful alcohol use and Internetaddiction among college students: Comparison of personality.Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63, 218-224.

  • YOUNG, K.S. (1996). Psychology of computer use: XL. Addictive useof the Internet: A case that breaks the stereotype. PsychologicalReports, 79, 899-902.

  • YOUNG, K.S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a newclinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1 (3), 237-244.

  • YOUNG, K.S. (2009). Internet addiction: Diagnosis and treatmentconsideration. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 39,241-246.

  • ZHANG, Y. & LEUNG, L. (2015). A review of social networkingservice (SNS) research in communication journals from 2006 to2011. New media & Society, 17 (7), 1007-1024.


Related articles

Article info







Cite the article:

Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.

Tesi Alessio . Social network sites addiction, Internet addiction and individual differences: The role of Big-Five personality traits, behavioral inhibition/activation systems and loneliness. BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2018;282(1):32-44. doi:10.26387/bpa.282.1.

Citation tool

How to cite this article

Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.

Tesi Alessio . Social network sites addiction, Internet addiction and individual differences: The role of Big-Five personality traits, behavioral inhibition/activation systems and loneliness. BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2018;282(1):32-44. doi:10.26387/bpa.282.1.