Work based learning: Italian adaptation of the Learning Potential of the Workplace scale (LPW)

Nicola Cangialosi, Carlo Odoardi, Adalgisa Battistelli

Accepted April 30, 2019

First published April 30, 2019


The present study sought to translate and adapt the Learning Potential of the Workplace Scale (LPW)
into the Italian language and assess its psychometric properties. A sample of 729 workers was recruited from 3 different
organizations located in Italy. Three studies tested the psychometric validity of the Italian version. The first tested the
LPW’s structure and validity by performing confirmatory factor analyses and calculating the scale’s reliabilities. The
second tested LPW’s convergent and divergent validities through correlation analyses. The relationship between the
LPW’s dimensions, HR training practices, and organizational tradition climate were investigated. Lastly, the third study
analyzed the scale construct validity by using structural equation modeling. The relationship of challenging tasks and
task feedback with LPW dimensions was observed. Results indicated that the Italian version was reliable, with similar
psychometric properties of the original scale and, therefore, a valid instrument for assessing the learning potential of the

Work based learning: Italian adaptation of the Learning Potential of the Workplace scale (LPW)


  • BATTISTELLI, A., ODOARDI, C., VANDENBERGHE, C., DINAPOLI, G. & PICCIONE, L. (2019). Information sharing andinnovative work behavior: The role of work‐based learning,challenging tasks, and organizational commitment. HumanResource Development Quarterly.

  • BAYONA, J.A., CABALLER, A. & PEIRÓ, J.M. (2015). The workdesign questionnaire: Spanish version and validation. Revista dePsicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 31 (3), 187-200.

  • BERG, S.A. & CHYUNG, S.Y. (2008). Factors that influence informallearning in the workplace. Journal of Workplace Learning, 20 (4),229-244.

  • BILLETT, S. (2004). Workplace participatory practices:Conceptualising workplaces as learning environments. Journal ofWorkplace Learning, 16 (6), 312-324.

  • BILLETT, S. (2008). Learning throughout working life: A relationalinterdependence between personal and social agency. BritishJournal of Educational Studies, 56 (1), 39-58.

  • BOSELIE, P., HESSELINK, M., PAAUWE, J. & van der WIELE, T.(2001). Employee Perception on Commitment Oriented WorkSystems. Rotterdam, ERIM Workpaper.

  • BOSELIE, P. & van der WIELE, T. (2002). Employee perceptions ofHRM and TQM, and the effects on satisfaction and intention toleave. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 12 (3),165-172.

  • BRISLIN, R.W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research.Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 1 (3), 185-216.

  • COETZER, A. (2007). Employee perceptions of their workplaces aslearning environments. Journal of Workplace Learning, 19 (7),417-434.

  • COETZER, A., KOCK, H. & WALLO, A. (2017). Distinctivecharacteristics of small businesses as sites for informal learning.Human Resource Development Review, 16 (2), 111-134.

  • DEAN JR, J.W. & SNELL, S.A. (1991). Integrated manufacturing andjob design: Moderating effects of organizational inertia. Academyof Management Journal, 34 (4), 776-804.

  • DE WITTE, H.D., VERHOFSTADT, E. & OMEY, E. (2007). TestingKarasek’s learning and strain hypotheses on young workers intheir first job. Work & Stress, 21 (2), 131-141.

  • DRAGONI, L., TESLUK, P.E., RUSSELL, J.E. & OH, I.S. (2009).Understanding managerial development: Integratingdevelopmental assignments, learning orientation, and accessto developmental opportunities in predicting managerialcompetencies. Academy of Management Journal, 52 (4), 731-743.

  • ELLINGER, A.D. (2005). Contextual factors influencing informallearning in a workplace setting: The case of “reinventing itselfcompany”. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16 (3), 389-415.

  • ELLSTRÖM, P.E. (2001). Integrating learning and work: Problemsand prospects. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12 (4),421-435.

  • ERAUT, M. (2000). Non‐formal learning and tacit knowledge inprofessional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(1), 113-136.

  • ERAUT, M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies incontinuing education, 26 (2), 247-273.

  • EVERS, C.W. (2012). Teacher’s professional development at work andoccupational outcomes: An organizational and task perspective.(PhD), Open University, Heelren, The Netherlands, Unpublisheddoctoral dissertation.

  • HACKMAN, J.R. & OLDHAM, G.R. (1980). Work Redesign. Reading,MA: Addison-Wesley.

  • HARTEIS, C., BILLETT, S., GOLLER, M., RAUSCH, A. & SEIFRIED,J. (2015). Effects of age, gender and occupation on perceivedworkplace learning support. International Journal of TrainingResearch, 13 (1), 64-81.

  • HICKS, E., BAGG, R., DOYLE, W. & YOUNG, J.D. (2007). Canadianaccountants:Examiningworkplacelearning.JournalofWorkplaceLearning, 19 (2), 61-77.

  • HINKIN, T.R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in thestudy of organizations. Journal of Management, 21 (5), 967-988.

  • HUGHES, C. (2004). The supervisor’s influence on workplacelearning. Studies in Continuing Education, 26 (2), 275-287.

  • JOHNSON, R.E., ROSEN, C.C. & DJURDJEVIC, E. (2011). Assessingthe impact of common method variance on higher ordermultidimensional constructs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 744.

  • KLINE, R.B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equationmodelling (Fourth edition). New York: Guilford.

  • KOLB, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source oflearning and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

  • KYNDT, E., DOCHY, F. & NIJS, H. (2009). Learning conditionsfor non-formal and informal workplace learning. Journal ofWorkplace Learning, 21 (5), 369-383.

  • MARSICK, V.J. (1987). New paradigms for learning in the workplace.In V.J. Marsick (Ed.), Learning in the Workplace. London: CroomHelm.

  • MARSICK, V.J. & WATKINS, K. (2015). Informal and incidentallearning in the workplace (Routledge revivals). Routledge.

  • MINBAEVA,D.,FOSS,N.&SNELL,S.(2009).Bringingtheknowledgeperspective into HRM. Human Resource Management: Publishedin Cooperation with the School of Business Administration, TheUniversity of Michigan and in alliance with the Society of HumanResources Management, 48 (4), 477-483.

  • MÎNJINĂ, B. (2017). Translation and adaptation into the Romanianlanguage of the Personality-Related Position Requirements Form(PPRF). Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones,33 (1), 13-21.

  • NIKOLOVA, I., Van RUYSSEVELDT, J., De WITTE, H. & SYROIT,J. (2014). Work-based learning: Development and validation of ascale measuring the learning potential of the workplace (LPW).Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84 (1), 1-10.

  • NOE, R.A., CLARKE, A.D. & KLEIN, H.J. (2014). Learning in thetwenty-first-century workplace. Annual Review of OrganizationalPsychology and Organizational Behavior, 1 (1), 245-275.

  • PATTERSON, M.G., WEST, M.A., SHACKLETON, V.J., DAWSON,J.F., LAWTHOM, R., MAITLIS, S. & WALLACE, A.M. (2005).Validating the organizational climate measure: links tomanagerial practices, productivity and innovation. Journal ofOrganizational Behavior, 26 (4), 379-408.

  • PETERS, G.J.Y. (2014). The alpha and the omega of scale reliabilityand validity: Why and how to abandon Cronbach’s alpha.European Health Psychologist, 16 (S), 576.

  • PODSAKOFF, P.M., MacKENZIE, S.B., LEE, J.Y. & PODSAKOFF,N.P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research:A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (5), 879-903.

  • PODSAKOFF, P.M., MacKENZIE, S.B. & PODSAKOFF, N.P.(2012). Sources of method bias in social science researchand recommendations on how to control it. AnnualReview of Psychology, 63 (1), 539-569.
  • PREENEN, P.T., De PATER, I.E., van VIANEN, A.E. & KEIJZER,L. (2011). Managing voluntary turnover through challengingassignments. Group & Organization Management, 36 (3), 308-344.

  • PREENEN, P., van VIANEN, A. & De PATER, I. (2014). Challengingtasks: The role of employees’ and supervisors’ goal orientations.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23 (1),48-61.

  • R CORE TEAM (2019). A language and environment for statisticalcomputing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for StatisticalComputing; 2012. URL https://www. R-project. org.

  • RINTALA, H., NOKELAINEN, P. & PYLVÄS, L. (2018). Informalworkplace learning. Handbook of Vocational Education andTraining, 1-14.

  • SCHEIN, E.H. (1993). On dialogue, culture, and organizationallearning. Organizational dynamics, 22 (2), 40-51.

  • SEECK, H. & DIEHL, M.R. (2017). A literature review on HRM andinnovation-taking stock and future directions. The InternationalJournal of Human Resource Management, 28 (6), 913-944.

  • SKULE, S. (2004). Learning conditions at work: a framework tounderstand and assess informal learning in the workplace.International journal of training and development, 8 (1), 8-20.

  • TABACHNICK, B.G., FIDELL, L.S. & ULLMAN, J.B. (2007). Usingmultivariate statistics (Vol. 5). Boston, MA: Pearson.

  • TAVERNIERS, J. (2011). Learning reduces stress? Stress inhibitslearning? It depends: Occupational research combining surveystudies, field experiments, and cortisol assessments. OpenUniversiteit.

  • van VELDHOVEN, M.J.P.M., MEIJMAN, T.F., BROERSEN, J.P.J. &FORTUIN, R.J. (2002). Handleiding VBBA. Amsterdam: SKBVragenlijst Services.

  • WATSON, D., TREGASKIS, O., GEDIKLI, C., VAUGHN, O. &SEMKINA, A. (2018). Well-being through learning: a systematicreviewoflearninginterventionsintheworkplaceandtheirimpacton well-being. European Journal of Work and OrganizationalPsychology, 27 (2), 247-268.

  • WIELENGA-MEIJER, E.G., TARIS, T.W., KOMPIER, M.A. &WIGBOLDUS,D.H.(2010).Fromtaskcharacteristicstolearning:A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51 (5),363-375.


Related articles

Article info

Cite the article:

Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.

Cangialosi Nicola . Odoardi Carlo . Battistelli Adalgisa . Work based learning: Italian adaptation of the Learning Potential of the Workplace scale (LPW). BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2019;284(1):31-44. doi:10.26387/bpa.284.1.

Citation tool

How to cite this article

Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title. Year Published;Volume number(Issue number):Pages Used. doi:DOI Number.

Cangialosi Nicola . Odoardi Carlo . Battistelli Adalgisa . Work based learning: Italian adaptation of the Learning Potential of the Workplace scale (LPW). BPA Applied Psychology Bulletin. 2019;284(1):31-44. doi:10.26387/bpa.284.1.